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Eating Disorders Among Athletes. Presentation by: Julie Cassara Hildeberto Campos Carolyn Gonzalez Gus M. Lasam Return to main page. Introduction.

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Eating Disorders Among Athletes

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    1. Eating Disorders Among Athletes Presentation by: Julie Cassara Hildeberto Campos Carolyn Gonzalez Gus M. Lasam Return to main page

    2. Introduction Eating disorders, specifically anorexia and bulimia, continue to be on the rise among athletes in the sports of figure skating, wrestling and gymnastics. Return to main page

    3. Outline Findings Causes Statistics Prevention Treatment Return to main page

    4. Findings

    5. Most Common Types of Eating Disorders in Sports Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa Return to main page

    6. Psychological Characteristics of Anorexics • Preoccupied with dieting and being thin leading to excessive weight loss. • Have intense fear of fat and becoming fat. • Preoccupation with food and weight loss mask underlying psychological problems. Return to main page

    7. Psychological Characteristics of Bulimics • Frequent episodes of binge eating. • Exercise compulsively. • Fasting. • Abuse laxatives/diuretics. Return to main page

    8. Psychological Characteristics of Bulimics • Purging involves vomiting. • Often feels guilty after eating a meal. • No visible physical characteristics. • Uses self-destructive eating behavior to mask psychological problems. Return to main page

    9. Types of Sports With High Risks for Eating Disorders • Gymnastics • Wrestling • Boxing • Figure skating Return to main page

    10. Causes

    11. Causes in Gymnastics Standards Set by Society Pressure from Parents Pressure from Coaches Pressure from Judges Return to main page

    12. Standards Set by Society “In 1976, the average gymnast was 5’3” tall weighting 105 pounds, and in 1992, the average gymnast was 4’9” weighing 88 pounds.” Return to main page

    13. Pressure from Parents Parents who are competitive, controlling or perfectionists tend to push these behaviors on their children. Return to main page

    14. Pressure from Coaches Coaches are guilty of criticizing gymnasts for the need to be thin. A lot of the time coaches see their athletes’ physiques as a reflection of themselves. Return to main page

    15. Pressure from Judges Judges consider thinness a factor when scoring for technical and artistic ability. “In 1988, at a meet in Budapest, a US judge told Christy Hendrich, one of the world’s top gymnasts, that she was too fat and needed to lose weight if she hoped to make the Olympic squad.” Return to main page

    16. Causes Lead to Consequences “On July 26, 1994, at age 22, Christy Hendrich died of multiple organ failure. She weighed only 47 pounds.” Return to main page

    17. Statistics

    18. Population and Eating Disorders • Eating disorders among males and females are more prevalent among athletes then non athletes. • Eating disorders have a higher prevalence in the female athlete population, than in the male athlete population. Return to main page

    19. Eating Disorders and Genders • The occurrence of eating disorders cases among female athletes is of 90 – 95% • Among females Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa are more prevalent • Among males self-induced vomiting, binging, abuse of laxatives and diuretics is more prevalent Return to main page

    20. Females and Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa • In the female population the percentages of Bulimia Nervosa is higher than that of Anorexia Nervosa • 3% of women between the ages of 13 and 30 are bulimic, while 1% are Anorexic

    21. Females and Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa…continued • 10 to 20% of all anorexic patients admitted to the hospital for anorexia will eventually die from it Return to main page

    22. Prevention

    23. Treatment

    24. Warning Signs, Prevention and Treatment of Eating Disorders Return to main page

    25. Warning Signs • Excessive exercise outside of routine training period • Withdrawal from teammates • Inability to complete workouts • Menstrual irregularities • Loss of concentration • Restrictive dieting Return to main page

    26. More Warning Signs • Purging through vomiting,diuretics or laxatives • Chronic fatigue • Weight loss • Changes in mood • Fainting • Light-headedness • Decreased stamina Return to main page

    27. Prevention • One should be prepared to recognize and educate athletes on the symptoms and warning signs of eating disorders. • Educate athletes on the physical risks of maintaining a low body weight. • Set realistic goals, taking into account the individual athlete’s body type and shape. Return to main page

    28. Promote total and healthy nutrition • Eliminate public weight-in and body-fat analyses • Provide a resource for emotional counseling • Encourage positive self-image and self –esteem Return to main page

    29. More Preventions • Do not overplay the impact of weight on athletic performance • Recognize when healthy training regiments turn into obsessive regiments • Eliminate ridiculing or flippant remarks about body shape or weight Return to main page

    30. Treatment • Hospitalization • Medication • Dental work • Individual counseling • Group counseling • Family counseling Return to main page

    31. Conclusion The key is Awareness of… Symptoms Consequences Understanding Education Bottom line is… Return to main page

    32. Communication