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Biochemistry. 阮雪芬 Sep 9, 2002 NTUT. Chapter 1. Introduction. History What is biochemistry Biochemistry and life Biochemical Energy Transfer of Information from DNA to Protein. History. Life: 150 years ago Biochemistry: 60 years ago. What is Biochemistry. ?. Definition.

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Biochemistry


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    1. Biochemistry 阮雪芬 Sep 9, 2002 NTUT

    2. Chapter 1. Introduction • History • What is biochemistry • Biochemistry and life • Biochemical Energy • Transfer of Information from DNA to Protein

    3. History • Life: 150 years ago • Biochemistry: 60 years ago

    4. What is Biochemistry ?

    5. Definition • The science that is concerned with the structures, interactions, and transformations of biological molecules • The chemistry of life

    6. Biochemistry can be subdivided three principal areas • Structural chemistry • Metabolism • The chemistry of processes and substances that store and transmit biological information (molecular genetics)

    7. Biochemistry and Life • The cell is the fundamental unit of life • Prokaryotes and eukaryotes • Eukaryotic cells • animal cells • plant cells (chloroplasts and cell walls)

    8. Biochemistry and Life • Cells are composed of: • Small molecules • Macromolecules • organelles

    9. Biochemistry and Life The Approximate Chemical Composition of Bacterial Cell

    10. Biochemistry and Life • Expect for water, most of the molecules found in the cell are macromolecules, can be classified into four different categories: • Lipids • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Nucleic acids

    11. Biochemistry and Life • Lipids are primarily hydrocarbon structures • Carbohydrates, like lipids, contain a carbon backbone, but they also contain many polar hydroxyl (-OH) groups and therefore very soluble in water. • Proteins are the most complex macromolecules in the cell. They are composed of linear polymers called polypeptides, which contain amino acids connected by peptide bonds.

    12. Lipid Structure

    13. Carbohydrates Structure

    14. Biochemistry and Life • Each amino acid contains a central carbon atom attached to four substituents • A carboxyl group • An amino group • A hydrogen atom • An R group • Nucleic acids are the large macromolecules in the cells. They are very long linear polymers, called polynucleotides, composed of nucleotides.

    15. Amino Acids Structures

    16. Biochemistry and Life • A nucleotide contains : • A five-carbon sugar molecules • One or more phosphate groups • A nitrogenous base • DNA: A, T, G, C • RNA: A, U, G,C

    17. DNA Contain Four Bases RNA

    18. Covalent Structure of DNA

    19. Watson-Crick base pairs

    20. Watson-Crick base pairs

    21. The Double Helix

    22. Biochemical Energy • All cellular functions re quire energy. • The most-important chemical form of energy in most cells is ATP, adenosine 5’-triphosphate. • ATP ADP + Pi • Most ATP synthesis occurs in chloroplasts and mitochondria

    23. ADT and ATP Structures

    24. Energy Transfer

    25. Energy Transfer

    26. Transfer of Information from DNA to Protein DNA RNA Protein

    27. Transfer of Information from DNA to Protein