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Old Testament 6. Tobit. Written about 180-200BC Unknown location Hebrew romance Praises the virtuous Jew God’s mercy and benevolence Traditional forms of piety- prayer, fasting and almsgiving, burial of the dead Family life. Tobit. Tobit- devout and wealthy

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tobit
Tobit
  • Written about 180-200BC
  • Unknown location
  • Hebrew romance
  • Praises the virtuous Jew
  • God’s mercy and benevolence
  • Traditional forms of piety- prayer, fasting and almsgiving, burial of the dead
  • Family life
tobit3
Tobit
  • Tobit- devout and wealthy
  • Lives among captives deported to Ninevah
  • Suffers reversal of fortune and is blinded by bird doo.
  • Begs the lord to let him die
  • Remembers money saved- sends son Tobiah to get it- Chapter 4- instructions
tobit4
Tobit
  • Sarah- prays for death since she has lost 7 husbands- each killed on wedding night by demon
  • God sends Raphael archangel to help them both
  • Raphael goes to Media with Tobiah, attacked by large fish
  • Take gall, heart and liver- discard entrails
tobit5
Tobit
  • Tobiah eats fish, keeps rest
  • Raphael tells him to marry Sarah
  • Tobiah scared
  • Use fish liver and heart to ward off evil spirit and pray
  • Get married and pray 8:5-7
  • Use gall to cure blindness
  • God took care of the virtuous
judith
Judith
  • Written around 100 BC-Judith- a generic name
  • Holofernes- sent by Nebuchadnezzar to destroy nations who wouldn’t help him
  • Judith a widow- 8:7-8
  • Goes to enemy camp- pretends to betray her people
  • Holofernes wants her- allows her to pray to God for three nights
  • 4th night- drunk- she beheads him
  • Judith is small defenseless nation saved by God and Heroic Jewish woman
  • For us, Mary like Judith- 15:9
esther
Esther
  • 4th century BC
  • Haman- advisor to Persian King Xerxes
  • Hates all Jews- wants to kill them all in a day
  • Hates Mordecai- Jewish servant of the King who would not bow to Haman
  • M’s niece- Esther has become new queen
  • Kings grants her wisHangs Haman
  • E and M are classic pious Jews
  • God tells Purim
  • Deals with issue of whether Jews should be separate or integrated
  • Courage and resourcefulness
daniel
Daniel
  • Included in prophets
  • But is really apocalyptic
  • Apocalyptic literature- greatest popularity 200BC-100AD
  • Time of persecution of Jews, later Christians
  • Roots in prophetic literature
  • Day of the Lord- God will vindicate
daniel12
Daniel
  • Written during persecution by Antiochus IV (167-164 BC)
  • Men of faith can resist temptation and conquer adversity
  • Written to give comfort and courage during time of persecution
  • Characterized by great visions promising deliverance and glory to Jews
  • Arrival of the Kingdom of God
  • Son of Man- chapter 7
  • Also written to resist Hellenism
daniel13
Daniel
  • Daniel- an exile
  • Name means - my judge is God
  • 3 Parts
    • 1- six stories about Daniel and three companions at royal courst in Babylon
    • 2- (chapters 7-12)- symbolic visions
      • 4 kingdoms under which Jews will live from Babylonian conquest through God’s kingdom
    • 3-13-14- three other stories- only in Greek
daniel 1st part
Daniel- 1st Part
  • Daniel has position of influence
  • But keeps Jewish laws and customs
  • Refuses to worship pagan idols
  • Thrown into lion’s den- God intervenes
  • Accusers meet fate instead
  • Daniel predicts destruction of Babylon
  • God protects those who remain faithful
daniel 2nd part
Daniel- 2nd part
  • Heavenly destruction of Israel’s tormenters
  • Addressing situation with Antiochus
  • Using symbols- can hide message from authorities
  • Apocalyse- revealing- to believers through symbols, numbers,etc
  • Unveiling
daniel apocalyptic
Daniel- Apocalyptic
  • Author usually chooses a pseudonym holy or heroic figure from history
  • Cosmic viewpoint- whole universe involved in conflict
  • Day of Judgment- God will do the fighting
  • The just must wait for Day of the Lord
  • The just will rise from the dead 12:1-4
  • Angels are messengers of God
  • Expectation of Messiah- Son of Man 7:13-14
psalms
Psalms
  • 150 psalms
  • Called Psalter
  • Hymns used in worship
  • Arranged into 5 parts- like Pentateuch
  • More laments in first half
  • More songs of praise in second half
psalms21
Psalms
  • Psalm 1- an intro to whole book
  • Psalms2-41 ends with doxology 41:14
  • Psalms 42-72 ends with doxology 72:18-20
  • Psalms 73-89 ends with doxology 89:53
  • Psalms 90-106 ends with doxology 106:48
  • Psalms 107-150 -possible end at 119 with pilgrimage songs at end
psalms22
Psalms
  • Origin in worship
  • Very big in Temple worship
  • Meant to be sung
  • Many titles include instructions- ex. 4 and 6
  • Written over a timespan of 1000 years
  • 73 attributed to David
  • Others may have been cantors attached to Temple
types of psalms
Types of Psalms
  • Common classification- by literary type
    • Hymns
      • Enthronement - celebrate God’s kingship------93
      • Songs of Zion- show devotion to Holy city of Jerusalem---46
    • Psalm 100- general hymn
      • An invitation to praise God
      • Body- reasons for praising God
      • Conclusion- repeats introduction or expresses a prayer
  • Psalms 8, 19, 29, 33- examples
  • Songs of Zion- 46, 48, 76, 84, 87
  • Enthronement- 47, 93, 95-99
types of psalms25
Types of Psalms
  • Supplications- Laments
    • Largest number- about 40 individual laments and 12 national or communal laments
    • Ex: 22-individual-freedom from false accusation
    • EX: 51- individual
    • Ex: 137- community
    • Structure:
      • Calling on God’s name
      • Description of the need
      • Petition for deliverance
      • Reasons why God should grant deliverance
      • Expression of confidence in God- grateful praise
  • Sudden shift from lament to praise
types of laments
Types of Laments
  • Psalm of trust
    • Emphasis on expressions of confidence
  • Thanksgiving- ex 118
    • Gratitude to God
    • Communal and individual
    • Structure similar to hymns
types of psalms27
Types of Psalms
  • Royal Psalms
    • Royal laments- 144:1-11
    • Royal Thanksgiving 18, 21, 118
      • King is the speaker
  • Wisdom Psalms
    • Ex: 1, 34, 37, 49, 112, 128
      • Happy the one who
      • A teacher speaking to a pupil
      • Proverbs
      • Righteous vs. wicked
      • Advice on how to live
      • Reward and punishment
types of psalms28
Types of Psalms
  • Liturgical Psalms
  • Entrance liturgies- 15, 24:3-6, 15:1, 24:3
    • Ask who has right to enter Temple
    • Response of the priests- 15: 2-5
other types of psalms
Other types of Psalms
  • Individual song of confidence- 23
  • Wedding song- 45
  • Coming messiah- 2, 72, 110
  • Penetential Pslams- 51
types of psalms30
Types of Psalms
  • Historical Psalms
  • Contain accounts of God’s great works in history of Israel
    • Ex. 78, 105-106, 135-136
      • Salvation history
        • 78 and 106 contrast Israel’s rebellion with God’s graciousness
        • 105- praises Yahweh for faithfulness to covenant
  • Creation Psalms- 74, 89, 104 ex
  • Savior Psalms- 28, 42, 62 ex
attributes of god exercise
Attributes of God- Exercise
  • 71:22
  • 135:13
  • 18:2
  • 31:2-5
  • 90:14
  • 18:25-26
  • 108:41-42
  • 33:4-5
major themes in psalms
Major Themes in Psalms
  • Sovereignty of God
    • Power
    • Creation
    • Life- giver
  • God is Savior
  • God can never be fully known
  • God is trustworthy and faithful
  • God is a just God
major themes in psalms33
Major Themes in Psalms
  • There is only 1 God
  • He invites us to return friendship
  • Loving God means loving your neighbor
  • Loving God means a commitment to justice
  • We are a people of hope
  • The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord
psalms today
Psalms Today
  • Used in Liturgical Worship
  • Personal Prayer
  • Liturgy of the Hours
  • Responsorial Psalm
  • Rosary a recognition of the Psalms