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Imperialism. Economic Causes of Imperialism. need for additional sources of raw materials & natural resources **need for new markets for Amer exports -- Amer $ invested in other nations’ economies led to political influence there and sometimes, conflict.

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economic causes of imperialism
Economic Causes of Imperialism
  • need for additional sources of raw

materials & natural resources

  • **need for new markets for Amer exports

-- Amer $ invested in other nations’

economies led to political influence there

and sometimes, conflict

political strategic causes of imperialism
Political / Strategic Causes of Imperialism
  • need to protect trade and U.S. interests abroad

To strengthen U.S. navy; need for “coaling stations” abroad (navy bases)

  • Alfred T. Mahan – The Influence of Sea Power Upon World History – called for building a modern naval fleet & acquiring naval bases around the world
social moral causes of imperialism
Social / Moral Causes of Imperialism

Imperialists believed in spreading western ideas and Christianity (law, medicine, religion)

  • Social Darwinism: Anglo-Saxon superiority &

nation’s destiny; noble pursuit (spread democracy, Christianity, capitalism, etc.)

  • Quest for empire; to restore pioneering spirit – Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis
causes of the spanish american war
Causes of the Spanish American War
  • People of Cuba and Philippines wish to rebel against Spanish colonial rule
  • Depression of 1890 felt in Cuba; 1895 Cubans began revolt against Spanish
  • Spanish used heavy-handed tactics against Cubans (Gen. Valeriano “the Butcher” Weyler)
  • American press (“yellow journalism”) reports atrocities; creates sympathy for Cubans
  • American’s investments and property destroyed during Cuban revolt
america declares war
America Declares War
  • Feb 9, 1898 – DeLome Letter printed in Hearst’s Journal; angry American reaction
  • Feb 15, 1898 – USS Maine exploded in Havana harbor killing 260 American sailors; press blames Spanish in screaming headlines
  • McKinley asked Congress to declare war
  • April 19, Congress declared war & adopted Teller Amendment – US had no intention of annexing Cuba
a splendid little war john hay
“A Splendid Little War”John Hay
  • War fought on 2 fronts; in Caribbean (Cuba & P.R.) and Pacific (Philippines)
  • Adm G. Dewey led naval destruction of Spanish fleet in Manila Bay
  • Aguinaldo led Filipino rebels against Spanish
  • T Roosevelt led Rough Riders in Cuba – charge up San Juan Hill which opened way into Santiago
  • Sp Am War: Apr 25 - Aug 12; US won
  • John Hay called it “a splendid little war”
treaty of paris 1898
Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • 1. Spain recognized Cuban independence

(would become a U.S. protectorate)

  • 2. U.S. paid Spain $20 mill. to give up the

Philippines (U.S. would vote to annex)

  • 3. Guam (Pacific) and Puerto Rico ceded

to the U.S. – Guam still U.S.

possession; Puerto Rico is a

commonwealth

effects of the spanish american war
Effects of the Spanish American War
  • U.S. recognized as a world power
  • U.S. acquired an overseas empire – would face decisions on what to do with areas gained
  • Debate over expansion peaked: Imperialists v. Anti-Imperialists
  • U.S. annexation of Philippines led to Philippine-American War (3 years; 216,000 Filipinos died)

1946 - Philippines given independence

  • U.S. made Cuba a “protectorate” (Platt Amendment) & soon gave Cuba independence
debate over expansion should us annex philippines
Debate Over Expansion: Should US annex Philippines?
  • Anti-imperialists opposed expansion – Arguments:
  • Rejection of nation’s foundation of “liberty for all”
  • Faced enough difficulties at home
  • Threatened democratic foundations (fear of large standing armies)
  • Racism – might have to absorb people of different races
  • Expansion would cost too much
  • Fear of competition in job market; lower wages
debate over expansion annexation of philippines
Debate over Expansion & annexation of Philippines
  • Imperialists supported expansion
  • Arguments:
  • Americans needed new frontier
  • New markets for Amer. manuf. goods
  • New sources of raw materials
  • Increase in military power
  • Spread Amer. ideals: Christianity, democracy, capitalism
  • Anglo-Saxon superiority – our “duty”
new lands come under u s flag
New Lands Come Under U.S. Flag
  • Hawaii (1891) U.S. annexed after queen was deposed by S. Dole & U.S. Marines
  • Guam (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • Puerto Rico (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898
  • Midway Islands (1867) U.S. occupied and annexed – for naval base
  • Alaska (1867) U.S. purchased from Russia

(“Seward’s Folly”)

  • Samoa (1899) U.S. acquired base at Pago Pago
  • Philippines (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898
open door policy
Open Door Policy
  • Cause: Europeans carving China into spheres of influence; U.S. feared being left out
  • Policy announced 1899 by Sec. of State John Hay: all nations should have equal trading rights in China
  • Significance: gave American businessmen access to millions of Chinese consumers
panama canal
Panama Canal
  • Who: T. Roosevelt
  • What: waterway linking Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; greatly reduced travel time between U.S. coastlines
  • When: construction began 1904; finished in 1914
  • Why: for commercial and strategic advantages; facilitated trade; alternative to needing separate navies for each ocean
how did u s acquire rights to build the canal
How Did U.S. Acquire Rights to Build the Canal?
  • Treaty signed with Panama in 1904

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

  • Panama Canal Timeline:

1903: U.S. negotiated treaty w/ Colombia (Panama part of Col.); Col. gov’t stalled treaty; Roosevelt impatient – supported Panama’s revolt; U.S. recognized Panama’s independence then negotiated treaty w/ Panama ($10 mill; $250,000 yearly lease for 10 mi wide strip)

panama canal today
Panama Canal Today
  • 1978 Panama Canal Treaty negotiated during J. Carter’s Presidency; canal gradually transitioned to Panama’s control
  • Controversial treaty; narrowly ratified by Senate (VP had to cast deciding vote for 2/3 majority) – Rep’s used this against Carter in 1980
  • Transition completed in 2000 – Panama owns and operates canal today
roosevelt corollary to monroe doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary(To Monroe Doctrine)
  • Why? Europeans threatened intervention in W. Hemisphere (to collect debts, etc.)
  • When and how stated? In Dec. 1904 by Roosevelt in message to Congress
  • Central Message: if intervention in W. Hemis. necessary, U.S. would intervene, not European nations
roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt Corollary
  • When / Where / How Tested?

Early 1900’s in Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Haiti, Virgin Islands – U.S. used various methods of intervention

  • Significance / Effect on U.S. – Latin American Relations:

Made U.S. the international police power in W. Hemis.; led to U.S. intervention; damaged relations w/ Latin American nations

speak softly and carry a big stick t roosevelt
“Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick” - T. Roosevelt
  • Old African proverb
  • Describes Roosevelt’s foreign policy:

- Use diplomacy, but have power to enforce it and protect American interests

- Intervention if necessary

- “big stick” = the U.S. navy

taft s dollar diplomacy
Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”
  • Maintain orderly societies abroad by increasing American investment in foreign economies
  • “Substituting “dollars for bullets”
  • Taft’s foreign policy not as aggressive as Roosevelt’s
consequences of roosevelt taft s foreign policies
Consequences of Roosevelt & Taft’s Foreign Policies
  • Helped U.S. become world power
  • “dollar diplomacy” not always profitable
  • Created enemies in Latin America (esp. Caribbean & Central America)
  • Caused resentment and cries of “Yankee Imperialism”
wilson attempts a new direction moral diplomacy
Wilson attempts a new direction:Moral Diplomacy

1912 Wilson criticized foreign policy under TR and Taft

App’t Anti-imperialist Wm J Bryan as Sec of State

Wilson: promised US would not seek new territory but would work to promote “human rights, national integrity & opportunity”

Still ordered interventions in Haiti, DR & Mex

great white fleet
“Great White Fleet”
  • Dec. 1907
  • Roosevelt sent Navy on cruise around world to demonstrate U.S. naval power
  • Ship hulls painted white, thus the “Great White Fleet”