Imperialism
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Imperialism. Economic Causes of Imperialism. need for additional sources of raw materials & natural resources **need for new markets for Amer exports -- Amer $ invested in other nations’ economies led to political influence there and sometimes, conflict.

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Economic causes of imperialism l.jpg
Economic Causes of Imperialism

  • need for additional sources of raw

    materials & natural resources

  • **need for new markets for Amer exports

    -- Amer $ invested in other nations’

    economies led to political influence there

    and sometimes, conflict


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Political / Strategic Causes of Imperialism

  • need to protect trade and U.S. interests abroad

    To strengthen U.S. navy; need for “coaling stations” abroad (navy bases)

  • Alfred T. Mahan – The Influence of Sea Power Upon World History – called for building a modern naval fleet & acquiring naval bases around the world


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Social / Moral Causes of Imperialism

Imperialists believed in spreading western ideas and Christianity (law, medicine, religion)

  • Social Darwinism: Anglo-Saxon superiority &

    nation’s destiny; noble pursuit (spread democracy, Christianity, capitalism, etc.)

  • Quest for empire; to restore pioneering spirit – Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis


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Causes of the Spanish American War

  • People of Cuba and Philippines wish to rebel against Spanish colonial rule

  • Depression of 1890 felt in Cuba; 1895 Cubans began revolt against Spanish

  • Spanish used heavy-handed tactics against Cubans (Gen. Valeriano “the Butcher” Weyler)

  • American press (“yellow journalism”) reports atrocities; creates sympathy for Cubans

  • American’s investments and property destroyed during Cuban revolt


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America Declares War

  • Feb 9, 1898 – DeLome Letter printed in Hearst’s Journal; angry American reaction

  • Feb 15, 1898 – USS Maine exploded in Havana harbor killing 260 American sailors; press blames Spanish in screaming headlines

  • McKinley asked Congress to declare war

  • April 19, Congress declared war & adopted Teller Amendment – US had no intention of annexing Cuba


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“A Splendid Little War”John Hay

  • War fought on 2 fronts; in Caribbean (Cuba & P.R.) and Pacific (Philippines)

  • Adm G. Dewey led naval destruction of Spanish fleet in Manila Bay

  • Aguinaldo led Filipino rebels against Spanish

  • T Roosevelt led Rough Riders in Cuba – charge up San Juan Hill which opened way into Santiago

  • Sp Am War: Apr 25 - Aug 12; US won

  • John Hay called it “a splendid little war”


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Treaty of Paris, 1898

  • 1. Spain recognized Cuban independence

    (would become a U.S. protectorate)

  • 2. U.S. paid Spain $20 mill. to give up the

    Philippines (U.S. would vote to annex)

  • 3. Guam (Pacific) and Puerto Rico ceded

    to the U.S. – Guam still U.S.

    possession; Puerto Rico is a

    commonwealth


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Effects of the Spanish American War

  • U.S. recognized as a world power

  • U.S. acquired an overseas empire – would face decisions on what to do with areas gained

  • Debate over expansion peaked: Imperialists v. Anti-Imperialists

  • U.S. annexation of Philippines led to Philippine-American War (3 years; 216,000 Filipinos died)

    1946 - Philippines given independence

  • U.S. made Cuba a “protectorate” (Platt Amendment) & soon gave Cuba independence


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Debate Over Expansion: Should US annex Philippines?

  • Anti-imperialists opposed expansion – Arguments:

  • Rejection of nation’s foundation of “liberty for all”

  • Faced enough difficulties at home

  • Threatened democratic foundations (fear of large standing armies)

  • Racism – might have to absorb people of different races

  • Expansion would cost too much

  • Fear of competition in job market; lower wages


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Debate over Expansion & annexation of Philippines

  • Imperialists supported expansion

  • Arguments:

  • Americans needed new frontier

  • New markets for Amer. manuf. goods

  • New sources of raw materials

  • Increase in military power

  • Spread Amer. ideals: Christianity, democracy, capitalism

  • Anglo-Saxon superiority – our “duty”


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New Lands Come Under U.S. Flag

  • Hawaii (1891) U.S. annexed after queen was deposed by S. Dole & U.S. Marines

  • Guam (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898

  • Puerto Rico (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898

  • Midway Islands (1867) U.S. occupied and annexed – for naval base

  • Alaska (1867) U.S. purchased from Russia

    (“Seward’s Folly”)

  • Samoa (1899) U.S. acquired base at Pago Pago

  • Philippines (1898) Treaty of Paris, 1898


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Open Door Policy

  • Cause: Europeans carving China into spheres of influence; U.S. feared being left out

  • Policy announced 1899 by Sec. of State John Hay: all nations should have equal trading rights in China

  • Significance: gave American businessmen access to millions of Chinese consumers


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Panama Canal

  • Who: T. Roosevelt

  • What: waterway linking Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; greatly reduced travel time between U.S. coastlines

  • When: construction began 1904; finished in 1914

  • Why: for commercial and strategic advantages; facilitated trade; alternative to needing separate navies for each ocean


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How Did U.S. Acquire Rights to Build the Canal?

  • Treaty signed with Panama in 1904

    Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty

  • Panama Canal Timeline:

    1903: U.S. negotiated treaty w/ Colombia (Panama part of Col.); Col. gov’t stalled treaty; Roosevelt impatient – supported Panama’s revolt; U.S. recognized Panama’s independence then negotiated treaty w/ Panama ($10 mill; $250,000 yearly lease for 10 mi wide strip)


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Panama Canal Today

  • 1978 Panama Canal Treaty negotiated during J. Carter’s Presidency; canal gradually transitioned to Panama’s control

  • Controversial treaty; narrowly ratified by Senate (VP had to cast deciding vote for 2/3 majority) – Rep’s used this against Carter in 1980

  • Transition completed in 2000 – Panama owns and operates canal today


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Roosevelt Corollary(To Monroe Doctrine)

  • Why? Europeans threatened intervention in W. Hemisphere (to collect debts, etc.)

  • When and how stated? In Dec. 1904 by Roosevelt in message to Congress

  • Central Message: if intervention in W. Hemis. necessary, U.S. would intervene, not European nations


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Roosevelt Corollary

  • When / Where / How Tested?

    Early 1900’s in Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Haiti, Virgin Islands – U.S. used various methods of intervention

  • Significance / Effect on U.S. – Latin American Relations:

    Made U.S. the international police power in W. Hemis.; led to U.S. intervention; damaged relations w/ Latin American nations


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“Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick” - T. Roosevelt

  • Old African proverb

  • Describes Roosevelt’s foreign policy:

    - Use diplomacy, but have power to enforce it and protect American interests

    - Intervention if necessary

    - “big stick” = the U.S. navy


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Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”

  • Maintain orderly societies abroad by increasing American investment in foreign economies

  • “Substituting “dollars for bullets”

  • Taft’s foreign policy not as aggressive as Roosevelt’s


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Consequences of Roosevelt & Taft’s Foreign Policies

  • Helped U.S. become world power

  • “dollar diplomacy” not always profitable

  • Created enemies in Latin America (esp. Caribbean & Central America)

  • Caused resentment and cries of “Yankee Imperialism”


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Wilson attempts a new direction:Moral Diplomacy

1912 Wilson criticized foreign policy under TR and Taft

App’t Anti-imperialist Wm J Bryan as Sec of State

Wilson: promised US would not seek new territory but would work to promote “human rights, national integrity & opportunity”

Still ordered interventions in Haiti, DR & Mex


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“Great White Fleet”

  • Dec. 1907

  • Roosevelt sent Navy on cruise around world to demonstrate U.S. naval power

  • Ship hulls painted white, thus the “Great White Fleet”