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DIFFERENT ROADS: Personal Mobility in the 21st Century. by Robert Q. Riley. Ford hybrid-electric concept car. Total Oil Recovered Since 1859 & Total Remaining as of 1990. Billion Barrels. Total Recovered. Total Remaining. Canada. Middle East. United States. Western Europe.
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DIFFERENT ROADS:Personal Mobility in the 21st Century by Robert Q. Riley Ford hybrid-electric concept car
Total Oil Recovered Since 1859 & Total Remaining as of 1990 Billion Barrels Total Recovered Total Remaining Canada Middle East United States Western Europe Other Eastern Hemisphere Eastern Europe, Former U.S.S.R., China Mexico, Central & South America GROWING DEMAND DRIVES WEALTH TO OIL-RICH REGIONS WORLD CAR POPULATION Developing World 300% Increase 1995 to 2020 Million
1820 1860 1900 1940 1980 2020 GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS& GLOBAL WARMING Global Carbon Emissions 1820 to 2020 Source of U.S. CO2 Emissions 1997 Projected History
Product Design Affects Attitudes & Lifestyles OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLEMOBILITY TECHNOLOGY SOLUTIONS • Battery Electric Cars • Hybrid Power Systems • Fuel Cell Vehicles DESIGN SOLUTIONS • New Vehicle Types SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS • Station Cars • Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) XR-3 Tilting Three Wheel Vehicle Concept Robert Q. Riley Enterprises
BATTERY-ELECTRIC VEHICLES • NiHM Battery (Ovonic & SAFT) • Lithium-Ion Battery (SAFT) • Lithium-Polymer Battery(3M & Hydro-Quebec) Ovonic NiMH Battery Pack NiMH = 150 mile range on a 1,000 pound battery pack Lithium-Polymer = 300 mile range on a 450 pound battery pack
LITHIUM BATTERY COUPLE • 300-Mile Range on 450-lb Battery Pack • Solid State Design • No Liquid Electrolyte • Packaged in a Variety of Shapes FEATURES OF LPB Developed by 3M & Hydro Quebec
HYBRID-ELECTRIC VEHICLES • Combustion Hybrids Charge-Depleting Charge-Sustaining • Fuel Cell Vehicles Pure Hydrogen Reformed Hydrogen Direct Methanol Early Quincy-Lynn charge-depleting hybrid (circa 1980) Ford Hybrid Concept Car
PRODUCTION HYBRIDS Honda Insight with Integrated Motor Assist 61 mpg City 71 mpg Highway 1.0-Liter Gasoline Engine 10kw Electric Motor Regenerative Braking NiMH Batteries (144v) Honda Insight, courtesy American Honda
FUEL CELL VEHICLESReacts Oxygen From Air With On-Board Hydrogen Runs on Hydrogen By-Product is Water Up to Twice as Efficient as ICE Hydrogen Can Come From a Variety of Carrier Fuels Ford Focus FC5 Fuel Cell Concept Car
EFFICIENCY IN AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL DIESEL CYCLE OTTO CYCLE DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL HYDROGEN PEM FUEL CELL STACK EXPECTED DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELLS ARE LESS COMPLEX AND MAY BE MORE EFFICIENT THAN PURE HYDROGEN PEM CELLS
LIFESTYLE VEHICLES“Design” Alone Can Affect Energy Intensity High Energy Intensity Lower Energy Intensity Lowest Energy Intensity Chrysler’s Jeepster Concept Vehicle VW Beetle Smart Car
PERSONAL URBAN COMMUTERThree-Wheel Platform Provides Product Differentiation SPECIFICATIONS FOR ICE-POWERED CAR 100 mpg City 70 mph 800 lb Curb Weight Side-by-Side Seating SIGNIFICANTLY SMALLER CARS Lower Energy Intensity Fewer Harmful Emissions Improved Traffic Flow Increases Parking Capacity Less Hazardous to Pedestrians TRIMUTER Quincy-Lynn Enterprises, 1979
OUTSIDE-THE-BOX IDEAS IN VEHICLE DESIGN TILTING THREE-WHEELERS Vandenbrink Carver Zark 1500 design study by Paul Morrow Mercedes F300 Life Jet
PROJECT 32 SLALOMTilting Three-Wheeler Features 1000-lb curb weight Leans into curves for greater cornering power Little or no side force on occupants Seats two side-by-side Electric or ICE Power Courtesy Transit Innovations - www.p32fun.com
HUMAN POWERED VEHICLES Human Powered Vehicles Are Lifestyle Vehicles Energy-Efficient Personal Transportation Can Be Lifestyle Driven as Well as Technology Driven Ground Hugger XR2 Recumbent Bicycle - www. rqriley.com Courtesy Bicycle Transportation Systems, Inc. www.biketrans.com
STATION CARSASubsystem of Mass Transit Systems Honda ICVS City Pal Station Car FEATURES • Cars charged and maintained by fleet operator. • Users billed monthly. • Available at colleges, apartment & office complexes, shopping centers & transit stations. • Individual vehicles are better utilized. • Transit systems becomes more usable. Bay Area Rapid Transit District Prototype Station Car Toyota E-Com National Station Car Association - www.stncar.com
PERSONAL MOBILITY AS A COMMODITY PERSONAL RAPID TRANSIT (PRT) Keeps Private cars Out of Cities Downtown Land Better Utilized Pedestrians Not Mixed With Motorized Traffic No Local Emissions Traffic Noise Eliminated Superior Energy Efficiency SkyTran PRT System - www.skytran.net
PERSONAL MOBILITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY GM’s Ultralite 1400-lb Curb Weight 81 mpg Highway 0-60 mph in 7.8 sec Seats Four • Advanced Power Systems • New Materials for Lower Mass • New Ideas in Vehicle Design, Packaging, and Personality • Subsystems for Transit Systems • Personal Mobility Ultimately Becomes a Commodity GM’s Ultralite Carbon Fiber Car