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Birth & Journal Article #1. Lecture 3 Chapter 4 and Cooper & Aslin (1990) Psych 1643. Extra Credit Quiz #1. 1) The researchers found that __________speech had a higher average frequency and a wider frequency range than ________ speech.

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birth journal article 1

Birth & Journal Article #1

Lecture 3

Chapter 4 and Cooper & Aslin (1990)

Psych 1643

extra credit quiz 1
Extra Credit Quiz #1

1) The researchers found that __________speech had a higher average frequency and a wider frequency range than ________ speech.

2) In this study, infants were able to control how long they listened to samples of speech by looking at __________________________________.

pregnant thoughts
Pregnant Thoughts

“Somewhere between conception and becoming as big as a house, you come to a startling realization that becomes a recurring, horrific thought. I have to get this out of me, and there is no pretty way to do it.”

“Imagine - a seven pound kidney stone…”

“I think the reason that pregnancy lasts nine months is that it takes that length of torture before childbirth starts to sound like a reasonable option.”

signs of impending birth
Signs of Impending Birth
  • Prelabor
  • The Lightening - the baby’s head drops low in the uterus
  • The bloody show - a mucous plug that was in the cervix is released
  • The Breaking of the Waters - discharge of amniotic fluid
labor
Labor
  • Onset of Labor (latent labor):
  • 10 - 14 hours for first birth
  • Active Labor:
  • 2 - 3 1/2 hours for first birth
  • Transition:
  • 5 to 10 minutes for first birth
  • Some sense of disorientation, heightened arousal, or loss of control
birth
Birth
  • 10-50 minutes for first birth
  • Begins when the cervix is fully dilated
  • The baby’s head presses down on the bottom of the birth canal
  • The mother experiences a strong, reflexive urge to push to expel the baby
  • The baby is born
afterbirth
Afterbirth
  • Within 20 minutes of delivery (generally painless)
  • Mother and infant have initial contact
  • Placenta and umbilical cord is expelled
  • Rapid alteration of the hormone system to stimulate lactation and shrink the uterus
  • Mother and infant engage in early exploration; initial attempts at nursing
cultural differences
Cultural Differences
  • Birth Culture - the beliefs, values, and guidelines for behavior regarding pregnancy and childbirth
  • Mead and Newton (1967) - described societal attitudes along two dimensions:
    • Solicitude -
    • Shame -
    • Adequacy -
    • Vulnerability -
mead newton s dimensions
Mead & Newton’s Dimensions
  • What evidence have you observed of solicitude toward pregnant women?
  • What evidence have you observed of shame regarding pregnant women?
  • What evidence have you observed of adequacy toward pregnant women?
  • What evidence have you observed of vulnerability toward pregnant women?
how much of a contribution
How much of a contribution?
  • Heritability estimates - measure complex traits
    • kinship studies - compare characteristics of family members
    • They take the form of correlation scores
  • Concordance rates - measure the percentage of instances in which both twins show a trait that is present in the other.
    • These are generally used to study traits that can be present or absent
gene environment contributions
Gene - Environment Contributions
  • The idea of the reaction range:
    • a person’s unique, genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions.
  • The idea of canalization:
    • for some traits, there is a genetic restriction - no matter what the environment, this trait will develop similarly
genetic environmental correlation
Genetic-Environmental Correlation
  • Passive correlation:
    • parents create an environment compatible with their own genes
  • Evocative correlation:
    • child behaves in ways consistent with his/her heredity
    • this provokes responses from others that strengthen the child’s original response
  • Active correlation:
    • child selects an environment that complements his/her genetic tendencies
journal review some basics
Journal Review - Some Basics

Cooper, R. P. & Aslin, R. N. (1990). Preference for Infant-directed Speech in the First Month after Birth. Child Development,61, 1584-1595.

Two different types of hypothesis in every experiment. You should be able to identify and name both of these in the articles you read.

  • H0 = the null hypothesis - the independent variable (or variables) has no effect.
  • H1 = the alternative hypothesis - the independent variable (or variables) has an effect.
group one
Group One
  • What are the hypotheses for this experiment?
    • There should be three:
        • H0 =
        • H1a =
        • H1b =
group one cont
Group One - Cont.
  • Do these hypotheses lean toward a nature or nurture explanation?
  • What are some of the reasons the authors came up with these hypotheses? (From previous research)
group two
Group Two
  • What are the independent and dependent variables? What are the levels of each of the independent variables?
    • IV’s - 3
      • IV -
      • IV -
      • IV -
    • DV’s - 1
      • DV -
group two cont
Group Two - Cont.
  • Make a drawing of the experimental equipment.
  • How were the measurements (of the dependent variables) made?
group two cont23
Group Two Cont.
  • What methods were used to avoid confounding variables or observer bias?
  • What type of study was this - cross-sectional / longitudinal / sequential (circle all that apply)
group three
Group Three

Table 1 -

  • Describe the differences in ID and AD along the following dimensions:
    • Average Frequency (Pitch)
    • Frequency (Pitch) Range
    • Duration
    • Pause Length
group three cont
Group Three - Cont.

Figure 1 -

  • speak in ID and AD - use the sentences listed here, and try to make the rise and fall of your voice match the ones in the graph

Figure 2 -

  • What does this graph indicate?

Figure 3 -

  • What does this graph indicate?
group four
Group Four:
  • What were the major findings? (Try for at least three!)
  • What are some possible follow-ups to this study? (Don’t be limited to the ones listed!)