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Xenotransplantation. What is xenotransplantation? History of . . . Statistics Biological Concept of . . . Ethical Issues of . . . Where are we going with . . . Works Cited Photos Cited. Pigs and Humans. Rebecca Lewis Frontiers in Biology. What is Xenotransplantation?.

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Xenotransplantation

  • What is xenotransplantation?

  • History of . . .

  • Statistics

  • Biological Concept of . . .

  • Ethical Issues of . . .

  • Where are we going with . . .

  • Works Cited

  • Photos Cited

Pigs and Humans

Rebecca Lewis

Frontiers in Biology


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What is Xenotransplantation?

  • Xenotransplantation refers to the practice of transplanting, implanting, or infusing living cells, tissues, or organs from one species to another.


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History of Xenotransplantation

  • 1682 – Bone from a dog was used in Russia in an attempt to repair his injured skull. This attempt was reported successful, but the Russian had the bone removed soon after surgery under threat of the church of excommunication.

  • Late 1800’s – Frog Skins were often used as a way of healing burns or skin ulcers by grafting said skin directly onto the patient’s skin. One British Army surgeon was known to have claimed using this procedure a plethora of times with good results.

  • 1905 – French Surgeon grafts kidney tissues from a rabbit into a child, the child died two weeks later

  • 1920 – Doctor Serge Voronoff transplanted tissues from the testicles of monkeys into older men, claiming that the procedure brought sexual rejuvenation. Among his patients was the famous poet William Butler Yeats.


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History of Xenotransplantation

  • 1963-4 – Thomas Starzl grafts baboon kidneys into six patients. The patients only lasted between 19 and 98 days.

  • 1963-4 – 12 patients received Chimpanzee kidneys , however, most failed within two months of the surgery, though one did live for nine months, the longest time for a xenotransplantation patient to live up to this date.

  • 1964 – A 68-year-old man dies two hours after receiving a Chimpanzee heart.

  • 1969-1974 – Chimpanzee livers were transplanted into three children. They only survived between one to fourteen days.

  • 1977 – A 25-year-old woman receives a baboon heart but dies only six hours after surgery. About the same time a 60-year-old man receives a chimpanzee heart to assist his own heart, but dies four days after.


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History of Xenotransplantation

  • 1984 – Baby Faye receives a baboon heart and dies 20 days later.

  • 1992 – Using a four-drug “cocktail” to assist the transplantation of a baboon liver a patient lives for 71 days. However, the patient died of a brain hemorrhage and the type of rejection typical was not seen.

  • 1992 – A pig liver was placed besides the patients own liver in hopes that the extra liver would assist the patient’s liver long enough for a human donor to be found. The patient died after 32 hours.

  • 1993 – Baboon marrow and kidney transplant, patient dies after 26 days.

  • 1995 – Immune cells from a Baboon used for an AIDS patient. Condition improved though cells died quickly.

  • 1997 – Pig fetal nerve cells used in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Pig cells survived in one patient for over 7 months


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Statistics

  • Only 5% of the organs needed are available

  • 1990 United States – 21,914 people in need of transplants, 12,580 received them

  • 1990-1999 United States – 59% increase in rate of organ donors

  • 2001 United States – 80,374 people in need of transplants

  • 2001 United States – 6,124 people died waiting for transplants


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Statistics

  • 1996-2000 Canada – Waiting list grows by 62%

  • 1996-2000 Canada – Number of transplants increases by 22%

  • 1999 Canada – 170 (approximately 40% of those on the waiting list) people die waiting for transplants

  • 2001 Canada – Almost 4,000 people waiting for transplants, a 15.6% increase in 3 years


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Statistics

  • The Need for Organ Donors grows at 15% per year

  • 2004 Australia – In a survey two-thirds say they would use an animal organ to save their life

  • 2004 Australia – Survey shows 7 out of 10 males would agree to xenotransplantation

  • 2004 Australia – Survey shows 6 out of 10 woman would agree to xenotransplantation


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Biological Concepts

Modern Uses

  • Transplanted animal cells to be used for hemophillia, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease

  • Organ Transplants

  • A Way of delivering genes of therapeutic importance


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Biological Concepts

Primates vs. Pigs

  • Pigs have larger organs

  • Pigs are already slaughtered every day for meat

  • Primates have smaller organs

  • Primates share most of our genetic make up

  • Primates are not available in mass


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Biological Concepts

Existing Problems and Worries

  • 25 known diseases can be contacted from pig to human

  • Rejection rate is higher

  • Public Health risks

  • Perfection of Cloning


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Biological Concepts

Solutions to the Problems

  • Selective breeding

  • Genetic alterations

  • Containment

  • New and more powerful drugs

  • More Research

Pig Organ


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Ethical Issues

Religion

  • Jewish – Forbidden to eat any part of a pig

  • Heart is the seat of the soul

  • No hybridization of man with any other species


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Ethical Issues

Animal Rights

  • Physical discomfort

  • Psychological discomfort

  • Why should animals suffer for humans?

  • The right to life


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Ethical Issues

Arguments For Xenotransplantation

  • Bible technicalities

  • Importance of human life

  • Inspectors for animals

  • Pigs are already slaughtered daily

  • Use as few primates as possible


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Where are we headed?

Although to date there still hasn’t been any long term success with xenotransplantation scientists are optimistic that humans will no longer have any shortage of organs, tissues, or cells for transplantation. Scientists are continually conducting experiments to find new ways to solve any existing problems and to help prevent any new problems. These range from developing new medications for rejection to breeding genetically engineered pigs for the specific use of xenotransplantation. Although there have been some ethical issues raised, there doesn’t seem to be any obstacles in the way of these remarkable experiments.


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Works Cited

  • Berger, Alan H. and Gil Lamont. “Animal Organs Won’t Solve the Transplantation Shortage.” USA Today. 128.2654 (1999) : 56

  • Boyce, Nell. “Mixing Species – and crossing a live?” U.S. News & World Report. 27, Oct. 2003 : 58+.

  • Bryan, Jenny and John Clare. Organ Farm. Carlton Books Limited, 2001.

  • Cooper, David K.C. “Clinical Xenotransplantation – how close are we?” Lancet. 362.9383 (2003) : 3.

  • D’Silva, Joyce. “Dying to live.” Chemistry and Industry. 4 Dec. 2000: 767

  • Editorial. “Xeno’s paradox: putting animal organs into humans is a risk to public health.” The Economist. 341.7997 (1996) : 16.

  • Hutchinson, Ian. “The ethics of xenotransplantation.” Biological Sciences Review. 12.2 (1999) : 36.

  • Lanza, Robert and David K.C. Cooper. “Xenotransplantation”. Scientific America. 277.1 (1997) : 54-6.


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Works Cited

  • Molzahn, Anita E, Rosalie Starzomski, and Janice McCormick. “The Supply of organs for transplantation: issues and challenges.” Nephrology Nursing Journal. 20.1 (2003) : 17(12).

  • Platt, Jeffery L. “Biotechnology: Xenotransplantation.” Encyclopedia of Animal Science. Marcel Dekker, 2005.

  • Ravelingien, A, F. Mortier, E. Mortier, I. Kerremans, and J. Braeckman. “Proceeding with Clinical trials of animal to human organ transplantation: a way out of the dilemma.” Journal of Medical Ethics. 30.1 (2004) : 92-6

  • Sci/Tech at BBC News. “The History of Xenotransplantation” http://www.viewingspace.com Aug. 1999.

  • Thomas, Jodie. “Survey backs animal organs.” Australian Business Intelligence. 22, Aug. 2004: N/A

  • Travis, John. “Pig virus raises xenotransplantation alarms.” Science News. 151.16 (1997) : 245


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Photos Cited

  • “Baby Fae.” Photo. Aug. 1999. The History of Xenotransplantation. 20 Oct. 2005. <http://www.viewingspace.com>

  • Collony, Sandra. “Baboon Near Cage.” Illustration. Xenotransplantation. 20 Oct 2005. <http://www.ul.ie/elements/Issue7/images/Xenotransplantation_files/image002.jpg>

  • Collony, Sandra. “Lots of Little Pigs.” Photo. Xenotransplantation. 20 Oct 2005. < http://www.ul.ie/elements/Issue7/images/Xenotransplantation_files/image002.jpg>

  • Collony Sandra. “Two Pigs Cartoon.” Photo. Xenotransplantation. 20 Oct 2005. < http://www.ul.ie/elements/Issue7/images/Xenotransplantation_files/image002.jpg>


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Photos Cited

  • “Doctors at Work.” Photo. Xenotransplantation. 20 Oct 2005. <http://www.scienceandsociety.emory.edu/GMO/Xenotransplantation_files/image002.jpg> 

  • Forna, Shiela. “Baboon/Pig.” Illustration. 2000. Merger Signals in Xenotransplantation Research. 20 Oct 2005. <http://www.nature.com/nm/journal/v6/n11/images/nm1100_1195_I1.jpg>

  • “Heteroptic Mouse Model of Xenotransplantation.” Illustration. 2001. Vascular Biology and Xenotransplantation. 20 Oct 2005. <http://www.wlab.gu.se/em/index-filer/image008.jpg> 

  • Loss, Martin. “Pig Organ.” Photo. 2004. Xenotransplantation. 20 Oct 2005. <h

  • Organ Farm. “Monkey Under.” Photo. Primates, Baboons, and Pigs. 20 Oct 2005. <http://www.xenodiaries.org/images/babop3.jpg>

  • Pharma, Novartis. “Little Pig and Organ.” Illustration. 20 Oct 2005. <http://www.novartistransplantation.de/pub/organtransplantation/images/geschichte_xenotx.jpg>


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Photos Cited

  • “Pig to Human.” Illustration. Xenotransplantation. 20 Oct 2005. <http://www.liberation-mag.org.uk/0413.jpg> 

  • “Porky Cartoon.” Illustration. 2000. Xenotransplantation Humor. 20 Oct 2005. <http://www.crt-online.org/cartoons/xeno3.gif> 

  • Sue Cue Direct. “Xenotransplantation: She Has the Right to Listen, but Not to Speak.” 02 Oct. 2005. Prints by Sue Coe 1979-Present. Sue Coe Direct. 11 Oct. 2005. <http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.graphicwitness.org/coe/xeno1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.graphicwitness.org/coe/prntlist.htm&h=500&w=392&sz=55&tbnid=sUx3e_BhI_EJ:&tbnh=127&tbnw=99&hl=en&start=2&prev=/images%3Fq%3DXenotransplantation%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D> 

  • “Three Pictures Combined.” Photos. 20 Oct. 2005. <http://www.juris.uqam.ca/images/xenotransplantation.jpg> 

  • Unipublic. “Xenokunst.” Illustration. 26 July 2003. Dr. Claude Kaufmann. 11 Oct. 2005. <http://www.unipublic.unizh.ch/lenya/unipublic/live/magazin/gesundheit/2003/0726.html;jsessionid=AB7AB6E55EFEF6E6D61FD907ABE42825>