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Transport and society. Lecture 6 Urban transport and the environment. Limited mobility before Industrial Revolution. Mobility before Industrial Revolution. Few and short trips (1.1 per day, distance < 10 km per day) Land transport: walking, draught animals (horses)

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transport and society

Transport and society

Lecture 6

Urban transport and the environment

mobility before industrial revolution
Mobility before Industrial Revolution
  • Few and short trips (1.1 per day, distance < 10 km per day)
  • Land transport: walking, draught animals (horses)
  • Water transport: sailing, rowing
  • Transport minimal impact on the environment
the industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution
  • Invention of Watt’s steam engine
  • Demand for improvements to allow transport of raw materials, fuel, manufactured products
  • Canal network in Great Britain (end of 1700s)
  • Soon railways became the most important means of land transport (around 1850)
  • Steamboats
  • Synergetic expansion of production, transport and urbanisation
progress in motorisation
Progress in motorisation
  • End of 1800s: cars based on combustion engine using petrol
  • Also pneumatic tyres
  • The assembly line: T-Ford from 1908 to 1927
  • Spread of cars affected lifestyles, urban structures; led to road constructions in and between cities and across countries
post wwii development
Post WWII development
  • US
    • By 1950s one car per household
    • Increase in mobility spurred urban development with low densities
    • Decline in public transport; complete dependence on cars
  • Western Europe
    • Similar but later spread of motorisation
    • However, cars coexisted with public transport
    • Old compact cities, publicly funded public transport
1960s 1970s
1960s –1970s
  • Even more rapid motorisation
  • Cities transformed to facilitate car use
  • Flexible choice of residence and work
  • Public transport suffered a fall in profitability and competitiveness
  • People appreciated the convenience of car transport
  • However, serious new social problems
    • Congestion
    • Dependence on petrol even in developing countries
    • Air pollution (noticed early in Southern California)
    • 1963 – first US federal Clean Air Act
1960s 1970s continued
1960s –1970s continued
  • Europe
    • Buchanan Report: Roads in large cites causes more congestion than it remedies due to induced demand
    • The Leber Plan: Shutting cars out of city centres; improvements of public transport
  • Japan
    • Environmental problems from traffic largely neglected, partly because the problems were severe later
    • Later on health problems related to lead in petrol, photochemical smog, and noise were recognised
  • Newly developed and developing countries
    • Environmental problems recognised in the 1980s and 1990s
impacts of transport on the environment
Impacts of transport on the environment
  • Climate change
  • Air quality
  • Noise
  • Water quality
  • Soil quality
  • Biodiversity
  • Land take
  • Accidents and movement of hazardous goods
to eliminate environmental problems
To eliminate environmental problems
  • Creation of environmental protection agencies in the 1970s in many countries
  • The US Clean Air Act of 1970 specifically on transport
    • Required a 90 % reduction of air pollution by 1975 (requirements were later made milder)
  • In Japan
    • Use of unleaded petrol
    • In 1978 an Automobile Exhaust Gases Regulation Act (90 % reduction of NOx)
  • In West Germany
    • In 1980s cars were taxed depending on catalytic converter or not
urban transport management policy
Urban transport management policy
  • In 1960-70 in the US construction of ring roads and underground connections
  • The oil crisis lead to TSM (Transport System Management) – low cost means of raising capacity
    • Improved intersections
    • Traffic light control
    • Lanes for buses and HOVs (high occupancy vehicles)
    • Park and ride facilities
urban transport management policy cont
Urban transport management policy cont.
  • Later shifted to TDM (Transport Demand Management)
    • Avoid typical demand increase as often follows on new road construction
    • Restrict traffic for environmental reasons
    • Demand-side rather the supply-side measures
    • Includes: flextime, car sharing, park and ride, kiss and ride, priority lanes for buses and HOVs, promoting bicycle use, traffic calming, car free city centres, parking management, congestion pricing
  • Specifically for Europe
    • Compact cities
    • Improving pedestrian spaces and public transport facilities (LRT, Light Rail Transit lines, subways and continuation with streetcars)
urban transport management examples
Urban transport management - examples
  • San Francisco – restricting car access to city centre “Transit First Policy”
  • Portland – harmonising urban development with public transport
  • The Netherlands – “ABC Policy” designate location for new offices
  • Road pricing
    • Singapore, Norway (Bergen, Oslo, Trondheim), London, Stockholm
  • ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems) in Japan, eg car navigation system, electronic toll collection
environmental degradation in developing countries
Environmental degradation in developing countries
  • Environmental situation equally serious, or worse
  • Most countries not complying with WHO standards for air pollutants
  • Rapid industrial development, increase in car ownership, urbanisation (17 % of world population living in cities larger than 1 million)  Traffic congestion (Bangkok in 1994: 7-8 km/h), accidents, pollution
average air pollution
Average air pollution
  • SPM = suspended particulate matter
  • Measures for both fixed and moving sources of pollutant
  • generation needed – a large cost to bear
awareness of global environmental problems
Awareness of global environmental problems
  • The Stockholm Conference in 1972
    • Improvement of the global environment discussed (e.g. acidic deposition)
    • Establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  • Efforts to deal with the problem of global warming (in the 1980s)
    • Possible rise of the sea level
  • ”Sustainable development” introduced by the Brundtland Commission in 1987
    • ”development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”
current transport systems are not sustainable
Current transport systems are not sustainable
  • Use petrol, which is finite
  • Generate petroleum-based emissions
  • Generate CO2 and other greenhouse gases
  • Produce excessive numbers of accidents
  • Result in congestion
awareness of global environmental problems20
Awareness of global environmental problems
  • Establishment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988
    • Regular scientifically based reports on the global warming issue
    • More concerned for each report
  • The Rio Declaration Agenda 21 in 1992
    • Called for a reduction of the emissions to the 1990 level by 2000 in the developed countries
    • Did not materialise
  • The Kyoto Protocol in 1997 (in force 2005)
    • At least 5 % reduction of greenhouse gases by 2008-12 compared with 1990 levels in developed countries
    • No numerical targets for developing countries
    • Trade in Emission Permits (to reduce emissions where cheapest)
    • US and Australia have not ratified it
contribution of transport to global environmental problems
Contribution of transport to global environmental problems
  • The transport sector share of energy consumption in 1995 was 27 % and will in 2020 possibly be 33 % (a little less for CO2)
  • The transport sector is increasing its share of fossil fuel consumption
  • Global increase in traffic volumes makes it difficult to reduce fuel consumption
  • Total energy consumption expected to increase by 2 % per year (however, elasticity less than 1)
  • CO2-emissions will increase in a similar way if nothing is done
  • Of CO2-emissions from transport, land transport accounts for 74 %, aviation, shipping and railways for 12, 10, and 4 %, respectively
energy efficiency of various motorised modes
Energy efficiency of various motorised modes
  • Maritime transport the most energy efficient mode of transport (3-5 % of all transport energy consumed)
  • Rail is four times more efficient for passenger movement and twice as efficient for freight as road transport
  • Air is least energy efficient (5 % of all transport energy consumed)
  • Passenger transport accounts for 60-70 % of transport energy consumption
dependence of non renewable energy
Dependence of non-renewable energy
  • The transport sector relies on petroleum-based fuels to 95 %
  • Still oil reserves for several decades but we may be close to peak production
  • Higher oil prices could be expected
  • Search for alternative fuels (1 hectare could produce at most 1000 litres of biogas)
  • To maintain mobility technological innovations and changes in infrastructure and lifestyles are necessary
  • Think globally – act locally!
key messages
Key messages
  • Industrial Revolution  motorised transport  expanded mobility of people and goods  a revolutionary change in people’s lifestyles
  • After 1950 motorisation spread in one after another region
  • Convenience, prosperity and urbanisation but also air pollution and noise
  • Growth of car ownership and usage  oil consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, climate change
  • Motorisation in developing countries much faster
  • Sustain mobility: minimising negative effects, improvements in especially the urban transport sector