**Science and Technology Markup Language** (STML) For (Virtual) Poster Presentation or Demonstration at MathML and Math on the Web Conference at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign October 20-21, 2000 Som Karamchetty Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, Maryland

**Mathematical Markup Language** (MathML) "MathML will make the Web even better for educational, scientific and technical materials. It also has the potential to make mathematics accessible to those with visual disabilities. It will allow mathematical content to be reused and exchanged with technical computing systems for further manipulation." -- Tim Berners-Lee, Director, W3C Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

**MathML is Necessary but not Sufficient for** Science and Technology • MathML will be necessary to do equations embedded in text. • MathML will not be sufficient to represent essential other elements • in Science and Technology, namely: • Tables • Graphs • Sketches • Procedures

**Science and Technology Markup Language** (STML) STML will make the Web even better for educational, scientific and technical materials. It will allow scientific and technical content to be reused and exchanged with technical computing systems for further manipulation. --- Som Karamchetty [1] 1 with apologies to Tim Berners-Lee

**Explanation** Technical Textbooks, Handbooks, Journal papers contain Equations, Tables, Graphs, Sketches, and Procedures embedded in text. Scientists, Technologists, and Engineers use books to read, create, recreate, and rewrite text, data, and information in these forms. Representing Equations is not sufficient.

**How do Scientists, Technologists, and Engineers compute?** • Read books, journals, brochures • Use embedded equations, tables, graphs, sketches • Develop procedures on the fly • Use embedded procedures • Store information in books, notebooks • Transmit information

**Representations for Science & Technical Objects** Computer representation concepts for technical objects • equations, • tables, • graphs, • sketches • procedures Described in Natural Computing

**Features of Natural Computing** • Represents objects used in calculations, such as Equations, Tables, Graphs, Sketches, and Procedures • Embeds objects in text • Enables interactive calculations with embedded objects • Enables program development with objects • Enables domain specialists to incorporate S&T subject into objects • Separates software tool development and domain development

**Consider a spring design ...** Sketch Equation

**Sketch,** Equations, and Text on a book page

**Graph,** Equations, and Text on a book page

**Table,** Equations, and Text on a book page

**Conceptual** Natural Computing Screen

**Example of a Sketch**

**Graph,** Equations, and Text on a book page

**A complex Graph, from** a book page

**Benefits from Natural Computing** • Separates software tool development from content incorporation • Leads to domain-independent tools • Captures common calculation features for ready use • Enables rapid development of electronic technical books • Make the Web even better for educational, scientific, and technical materials Can be the basis for Science and Technology Markup Language (STML)

**Natural Computing** Can be the key to Science and Technology Markup Language (STML)

**Extend MathML to STML** • GML • SGML • HTML • XML • MathML • STML

**The Goals of MathML** • The principal goal of MathML is to enable mathematics to be served, • received, and processed on the Web, just as HTML has enabled this • functionality for text. • In more detail, MathML is intended to: • encode mathematical material suitable for teaching and scientific • communication at all levels. • encode both mathematical notation and mathematical meaning. • facilitate conversion to and from other math formats, both presentational • and semantic. • allow the passing of information intended for specific renderers and • applications. • support efficient browsing for lengthy expressions. • provide for extensibility. • be well suited to template and other math editing techniques. • be human legible (though it is very verbose), and simple for software to • generate and process. Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

**Now, The Goals of STML** • The principal goal of STML will be to enable Science and technology(including mathematics and engineering) to be served, • received, and processed on the Web, just as HTML has enabled this • functionality for text. • In more detail, STML is intended to: • encode S&T material suitable for teaching and scientific and technical • communication at all levels. • encode both S&T notation and S&T meaning. • facilitate conversion to and from other S&T formats, both presentational • and semantic. • allow the passing of information intended for specific renderers and • applications. • support efficient browsing for complex procedures. • provide for extensibility. • be well suited to template and other S&T editing techniques. • be human legible, and simple for software to generate and process. Modified from Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

**Who are the intended users ? ** STML is intended to be used (indirectly usually) by everyone from high-school science students to academics and engineers in industry. It also provides an interchange mechanism between applications processing S&T representation in some form. Modified from Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

**Why do the goals of STML go beyond the display** of Science and Technology information ? The Web represents a fundamental change in the underlying metaphor for knowledge storage, a change in which interconnectivity and interactivity play central roles. The intention is to provide ways of communicating science and technology which, in addition to rendering mechanisms, facilitate automatic processing, searching and indexing, and reuse in other S&T applications and contexts. This includes contexts where the underlying S&T semantics are important. Modified from Source: http://www.w3.org/Math/mathml-faq.html

**The Basic Situation** No one computer application does everything and information frequently needs to be shared by people and by applications. We need to be able to transfer S&T objects between applications, even applications running on different computers. This transfer involves a transcription from the sender's internal representation of the object to one used by the receiver. Modified from Source: http://www.matematik.su.se/~leifj/wshop/openmath.html

**Conclusion** • STML = MathML Plus Some • Equations • plus • Tables • Graphs • Sketches • Procedures • STML will be sufficiently capable for Science and Engineering.

**For the Inquiring Minds** Table representation in Natural Computing

**Anatomy of Table Class** • Caption • Header • Body • Footnotes Table 7-1. Thermal Properties applicable to real gases

**0,0** 0,1 0,2 1,0 1,1 1,2 Anatomy of Table Header • Cell cage • Cell types • Cell contents String Pressure Temperature Volume psia deg F Cft

**Pointer to** Cell Contents S. No. Cell Location 0 , 0 0 p0 0 , 1 1 p1 0 , 2 2 p2 1, 0 3 p3 1 , 1 4 p4 1 , 2 5 p5 0,0 0,1 0,2 1,0 1,1 1,2 Cell Cage Array Cell Contents Array Pressure Temperature Volume psia deg F Cft Cell Cage

**0,0** 0,1 0,2 1,0 1,1 1,2 2,0 2,1 2,2 3,0 3,1 3,2 4,0 4,1 4,2 5,0 5,1 5,2 Adjacency List Representation

**Adjacency Relationships** Table Values Adajacency of values Pressure has 2nd East neighbor Volume 150 has 2nd East neighbor result

**Contact Information:** Dr. Som Karamchetty Army Research Laboratory AMSRL-CI-C Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 (301) 394-3198 (301) 394-3591 (fax) skaramch@arl.army.mil