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eXtensible Markup Language - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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By: Milodie Butsch, Rob Lamunyan, and Craig Sundet. eXtensible Markup Language. eXtensible Markup Language. Markup language gives instructions to computers on how to handle or display the contents of a file

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Extensible markup language

eXtensible Markup Language

  • Markup language gives instructions to computers on how to handle or display the contents of a file

  • As defined by, XML, is a simple, very flexible text format designed to meet the challenges of large scale electronic publishing, and is now playing an increasingly important role in the exchange in a wide variety of data on the Web and elsewhere

  • The instructions are given with a set of codes or tags that surround the text. These tags usually have angle brackets around them ( '<' and ‘/>‘ ).

  • This allows different computers to understand what the other is saying


  • Everyone write down a recipe for a peanut butter and jelly sandwich on the note card provided

What xml does
What XML Does

  • A computer does not have the ability to decipher the ingredients from the instructions, so the XML tags allow the computer to understand that and format it properly

  • <Title>PB&J Sandwich</Title>

  • <Ingredients>Peanut Butter, Jelly, Bread<Ingredients/>

  • <Instructions>Spread peanut butter over 1 slice of bread, then spread jelly over the other. Put them together and you have a PB&J sandwich<Instructions/>

  • The computer then knows what the title is, what the ingredients are, and how it is supposed to be formatted.

Overview of xml
Overview of XML

  • XML was developed by the World Wide Web Consortium in 1996 and has been a W3C recommendation since 1998.

  • XML was designed to structure, carry and store data, focusing on what the data is. Today, XML is the tool that we use to communicate data between the web and other applications.

  • Example of what XML looks like for a recipe:

    • Found at

    • Menu

    • CD Catalog

  • VIDEO: Web 2.0 ... The Machine is Us/ing Us

Document type definition
Document Type Definition

  • In the example you may have been wondering how the computer knows how to format the Title, and ingredients, etc. That is where a DTD comes in.

  • defines DTD as ‘the legal building blocks of an XML document. It defines the document structure with a list of legal elements and attributes’

  • A DTD is in a way a dictionary for looking up how things are formatted.

    • Determine how the enclosed information is formatted

Xml schema
XML Schema

  • XML Schema defined by

    • XML Schema is an XML-based alternative to DTD’s

    • An XML Schema describes the structure of an XML document

    • The XML Schema language is also referred to as XML Schema Definition (XSD)

  • The benefits of XML Schema to DTD’s

    • Easy to work with data from database

    • Easier to validate the correctness of data

    • Easier to convert data between different data types

Extensible markup language

  • Definition of HTML

    • Hypertext Markup Language is the predominant markup language for web pages, it provides a mean to describe the structure of text-based information in a document

  • Problems of HTML

    • HTML is a basic language, the demand for formatting data rather than just displaying it has surpassed HTML's capabilities.

    • The rules are often times not clear or not enforced

  • How XML addresses these problems.

    • XML is a new and improved versions, far fewer rules, but rules that must be followed.

    • Has the DTD/XML Schema which keeps it much more organized

Advantages of xml
Advantages of XML

  • It is plain- text based and can communicate any information in any written language, as well as humans will always be able to read it.

  • Makes it easy to share data so companies can conduct business more efficiently and effectively.

  • XML is the basis for RDF and the Semantic Web. RDF is an XML text format that supports resource description and metadata applications, such as music playlists, photo collections, and bibliographies. RDF provides tools to integrate even more, to make the Web a little bit more into a Semantic Web. Just like people need to have agreement on the meanings of the words they employ in their communication, computers need mechanisms for agreeing on the meanings of terms in order to communicate effectively.

  • XML is license-free, platform-independent (immune to changes in technology) and well-supported

Our sources
Our Sources






  • XML can be an extremely confusing thing, hopefully that through the readings and our presentation you were able to come away with a better understanding of the topic.