chapter 12 food safety and food technology l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 12 Food Safety and Food Technology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 12 Food Safety and Food Technology

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 75

Chapter 12 Food Safety and Food Technology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 12 Food Safety and Food Technology. Agencies That Monitor The U.S. Food Supply. CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) Dept. Health and Human Services-monitors foodborne illness EPA -regulates pesticides and water quality

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

Chapter 12 Food Safety and Food Technology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
agencies that monitor the u s food supply
Agencies That Monitor The U.S. Food Supply
  • CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) Dept. Health and Human Services-monitors foodborne illness
  • EPA-regulates pesticides and water quality
  • FDA- (HHS) responsible for all food safety and wholesomeness except eggs, meat and poultry
  • USDA-Responsible for meat, poultry and eggs
food safety
Food Safety
  • Harmful substances in foods


      • Bacteria, viruses, parasites
      • Some common pathogens causing foodborne illness
        • Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella, Escherichia coli

Chemical contamination

      • Pesticides
      • Animal drugs
      • Pollutants

Natural toxins

      • Methyl mercury
      • Poisonous plants
      • Solanine
microbes and food safety
Microbes and Food Safety
  • Foodborne illnesses can be life-threatening
    • Especially to the ill, the malnourished, those with a compromised immune system, pregnant women, infants, children and the very old
  • Each year in the United States, an estimated 76 million people become ill from foodborne diseases

≈5,000 of them die

microbes and food safety5
Microbes and Food Safety

Symptoms of foodborne illness

  • Bloody stools
  • Diarrhea of more than 3 days’ duration
  • Fever of longer than 24 hours duration
  • Headache accompanied by muscle stiffness and fever
  • Numbness, muscle weakness, tingling sensations in the skin
  • Rapid heart rate, fainting, dizziness

Majority of food-poisoning cases

  • Result of errors consumers make in handling foods after purchase
  • Commercially prepared food is “usually” safe

If digestive tract disturbances are the only major symptom of your next bout of “stomach flu” chances are it was foodborne illness

food safety6
Food Safety
  • Raw meats can contain live, disease-causing organisms
  • Thorough cooking makes them safe
  • In the mid-1990s a fast-food restaurant chain in the Northwest served undercooked hamburgers from meat contaminated with bacterium E. coli 0157:H7
    • 4 people died
    • 100s of patrons became seriously ill

As a result more Government Inspections and Industry controls were set up through the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan

food safety7
Food Safety
  • By law, U.S. producers and handlers of meat, poultry, seafood, fresh fruit, and vegetable juices must employ a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan
  • Since the implementation contamination of poultry has declined by 50%, ground beef by 40%, pork by 25%
  • USDA inspectors increased
  • FDA inspectors decreased
food safety8
Food Safety
  • Consumer Protection
    • The safety of canned and packaged foods sold in grocery stores is controlled through sound food technology practices
  • Large-scale commercial incidents make up only a fraction of the nation’s total food-poisoning cases each year
  • The vast majority of cases arise from one person’s error in a small setting
    • Affect just a few victims
food safety9
Food Safety
  • Food can provide ideal conditions for bacteria to thrive or produce toxins
    • Disease-causing bacteria require
      • Warmth

40°F - 140°F = 4°C - 60°C

      • Moisture
      • Nutrients
  • To control bacteria
    • Keep hot food hot-above 140F
    • Keep cold food cold-below 40F/4C
    • Keep raw foods separate
    • Keep your hands and the kitchen clean
food safety10
Food Safety
  • Keep Hot Food Hot
    • Keep cooked foods at 140°F or higher until served cooking does not destroy all bacterial toxins
    • If handled improperly can cause illness
    • Cooked foods should be refrigerated immediately or within two hours at the maximum
  • Keep Cold Food Cold
    • Start when you leave the grocery store
    • At home, put foods into the refrigerator or freezer immediately
    • When defrosting foods
      • Thaw meats or poultry in the refrigerator
      • Marinate meats in the refrigerator
food safety12
Food Safety
  • Food with an “off” appearance or odor should not be used or tasted
  • Keep raw foods separate /Prevent cross-contamination
    • Raw foods, especially meats, eggs and seafood, are likely to contain bacteria
    • Keep the raw foods and their juices away from ready-to-eat foods
    • After handling raw foods wash surfaces & your hands, thoroughly with soap
  • Foods prone to microbial growth
    • Those high in moisture and nutrients
    • Those chopped or ground like meats and poultry
food safety13
Food Safety
  • Treat kitchen utensils with heat
    • Soapy water heated to 140°F kills most harmful organisms
    • Water must be scalding hot, well beyond the temperature of the tap
  • Automatic dishwasher
    • Uses water hotter than hands can tolerate
    • Most dishwasher detergents contain chlorine
  • Sponges
    • Place wet sponges in a microwave and heat it until steaming hot
  • Make use of antibacterial cleaners, sponges, cloths, boards, or utensils
foods that make people sick
Foods That Make People Sick

Cryptosporidium-300,00 ill/7deaths 2-10days

1993/ affected 400,00 100 deaths Milwaukee

Hepatitis A-4200 ill/4 deaths 15-58 days

Listeria-2,500 ill/500 deaths 7-30 days

E. Coli -62,500 ill/50 deaths

Salmonella -1-34 million/500 deaths 1-3 days

“Stomach Flu”/Norovirus 9.2 million/124 deaths


Traveler’ Diarrhea/ Giardia and other protoza 10 million 2 days-several weeks

Botulism-60/4 deaths 12-72 hours

Staphycoccus 185,000/2 deaths ½ hour-8hr

foods that make people sick15
Foods That Make People Sick
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) “Mad Cow” Disease
    • Not related to sanitation
    • A disease of cattle linked with a rare but fatal human brain disorder
    • Can lie dormant in the body for many years before symptoms arise
    • BSE is caused by a protein, known as a prion
    • Cannot be killed or controlled through cooking or disinfecting
    • The body’s immune system doesn’t rid the body of them
    • Little is known about how prions cause diseases
      • Found in people who consumed products from infected animals
      • To date: Fewer than 150 people, most in Great Britain have been diagnosed
foods that make people sick16
Foods That Make People Sick
  • The USDA has enacted protective measures targeting BSE
    • Prohibiting the use of downer cattle (unable to walk) for human consumption
    • Increasing BSE testing of cattle at slaughter
  • At risk are
    • Imported supplements made from glands of animals often sold as hormone preparations
foods that make people sick17
Foods That Make People Sick
  • Eggs
    • Raw, unpasteurized eggs are likely to be contaminated by Salmonella bacteria
    • Raw pasteurized egg substitutes may contain a few live bacteria
      • They may not be safe for pregnant women, the elderly, the very young, or those suffering from immune disorders
  • Raw Produce
    • Fruits and vegetables are a microbial threat unless they are thoroughly rinsed in running cold water
    • Ten years ago, meats, eggs, and seafood posed the greatest foodborne illness threat
    • Today produce equals them
foods that make people sick18
Foods That Make People Sick
  • Seafood
      • Worms, Flukes, Viruses, and Naturally occurring toxins
  • Dangers posed by seafood have grown in recent years
    • Offshore waters are becoming more polluted
    • Viruses that cause human diseases have been detected in ≈90% of water off the U.S. coast
foods that make people sick19
Foods That Make People Sick
  • Honey
    • Can contain dormant spores of Clostridium botulinum that become active in the human body & produce a toxin
      • Adults are usually protected
      • Infants under one year of age should never be fed honey
  • Picnics, Lunch Bags, and Take-Out Foods
illness when traveling
Illness When Traveling
  • People who travel to places where cleanliness standards are lacking can get Traveler’s diarrhea
    • Before you travel, ask your physician which medicines to take with you in case you get sick
    • Wash your hands often with soap and water
    • Eat raw fruits and vegetables only if you have washed them with your clean hands in boiled water and peeled them yourself
    • Skip salads
  • Water, ice, and beverages made from water may be unsafe
    • Take along disinfecting tablets
    • Drink only treated, boiled, canned, or bottled beverages without ice
      • Use when brushing your teeth
natural toxins in foods
Natural Toxins in Foods
  • Belladonna and hemlock
    • Plants that are deadly poisons
  • Sassafras
    • Contains a cancer-causing agent
    • Banned from use in commercially produced foods and beverages
  • Cabbage, turnips, mustard greens, and radishes
    • Contain small quantities of goitrogens
      • Compounds that can enlarge the thyroid gland and aggravate thyroid problems
natural toxins in foods22
Natural Toxins in Foods
  • Raw lima beans, cassava & apricot pits
    • Contain precursors to cyanide
  • Potatoes
    • Contain solanine a bitter, narcotic-like substance
      • Can build up to toxic levels when potatoes are exposed to light during storage
      • Found in a green layer that develops just below the skin that can be peeled off
  • Seafood
    • Contains redtide toxin that occurs during algae blooms
    • The red tide causes a form of food poisoning that paralyzes the eater
irradiation and food safety
Irradiation and Food Safety
  • Potential Benefits of Food Irradiation
    • Kills almost all disease-producing microorganisms present in food
    • Reduces the incidence of foodborne illness
    • Reduces the destruction of food by pests
    • Can kill most microbes even while food is in a frozen state
    • Irradiated raw poultry is 99.9% free of disease-causing microorganisms, reducing the risk of cross-contamination
    • Has no effect on most toxins, prions, and microbial spores
irradiation and food safety25
Irradiation and Food Safety

Foods approved for radiation

Citrus fruits, eggs, frozen and fresh meats,

mushrooms, potatoes, onions, poultry, spices,

strawberries, tomatoes, tropical fruits, wheat

Labeling of Irradiated Foods

  • Required by the FDA
  • No label is required for foods containing irradiated ingredients and for irradiated foods served in restaurants
irradiation and food safety26
Irradiation and Food Safety
  • Consumer fears about safety
    • Foods will become radioactive
    • Foods will lose nutrients
    • Foods will not be safe to eat
    • Harmful chemicals will form
    • People will be endangered-- plant workers, the general population
    • The environment will be effected
irradiation and food safety27
Irradiation and Food Safety
  • Irradiation’s Effects on Nutrients
    • Most nutrients, as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and minerals, survive irradiation intact
    • Nutrients sensitive to heat treatment, such as the B vitamins and ascorbic acid, are sensitive to irradiation
  • Irradiation Safety
    • More than 40 years of research on animals have revealed no toxic effects from eating irradiated foods
    • Studies of human volunteers who ate a diet composed entirely of irradiated foods found no ill effects
irradiation and food safety28
Irradiation and Food Safety

Consumers: The Final Authority

  • Whether irradiated foods will appear in markets depends upon whether consumers choose to buy them
  • According to a national survey those willing to purchase irradiated foods declined during the past decade from 70% to about 50%
    • Cost is a big factor
residues and contaminants in foods pesticides
Residues and Contaminants in FoodsPesticides
    • Chemicals used to control insects, diseases, weeds, fungi, and other pests on crops and around animals
    • Includes herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides
  • Used to ensure the survival of food crops
  • Accumulates in the food chain
  • Kill pests’ natural predators
  • Pollute the water, soil, and air
residues and contaminants in foods pesticides30
Residues and Contaminants in Foods Pesticides
  • Do Pesticides on Foods Pose a Hazard to Consumers?
    • Many pesticides are broad-spectrum poisons that damage all living cells not just pests
      • Their use poses hazards to the plants and animals and workers involved with pesticide production, transport, and application
  • High doses of pesticides applied to laboratory animals cause
    • Birth defects, Sterility, Tumors, Organ damage, Central nervous system impairment
  • Pesticide residues on agricultural crops can survive processing and may be present in and on foods served to people
residues and contaminants in foods pesticides32
Residues and Contaminants in Foods Pesticides
  • Infants and children may be more vulnerable to adverse effects
  • Their brains cannot exclude pesticides and other chemicals to the same extent as the adult brain
residues and contaminants in foods pesticides34
Residues and Contaminants in Foods Pesticides
  • A loophole in federal regulations allows companies in the U.S. to make banned pesticides and export them to other countries
    • The banned pesticides can then return to the U.S. in imported foods
residues and contaminants in foods pesticides35
Residues and Contaminants in Foods Pesticides

Possible Alternatives to Pesticides

      • Manage pests by using a combination of natural and biological controls
  • Natural Pesticides are uses in organic farming
    • nicotine (tobacco)
    • psoralens (celery)
  • Organic foods
    • Foods grown and processed without the use of synthetic chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, or without genetic engineering or irradiation
residues and contaminants in foods animal drugs
Residues and Contaminants in Foods Animal Drugs
  • Bovine somatotropin (bST) growth hormone
      • Produced by genetically modified bacteria
      • Cattle are injected with growth hormone
      • FDA considers the practice safe & does not require testing of food products for traces

bST use

      • Promotes lean tissue growth
      • Increases milk production
  • The European Union and Canada ban the use of bST for milk cows
residues and contaminants in foods animal drugs37
Residues and Contaminants in Foods Animal Drugs
  • Antibiotics in Livestock
    • Often given as part of a daily feeding regimen
    • Prevent infections to the animals living in crowded conditions and promotes rapid growth
    • By law there is a waiting period before slaughter so the drugs break down
    • Consumers face little threat of getting antibiotics in meats, milk, and eggs
      • The greater risk is illness from antibiotic-resistant bacteria when animals are treated with daily antibiotics
environmental contaminants
Environmental Contaminants
  • Contaminant
    • Any substance occurring in food by accident or not normally present
    • Some contaminants resist breakdown in the body and are not metabolized or excreted
    • Some (mercury) can pass from one species to another and accumulate at higher concentrations (bioaccumulation)
  • Chemical contaminants of concern in foods
    • Heavy metals Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury, Selenium
    • Halogens Chlorine, Ethylene dichloride, Iodine, PBB, PCBs, TCE, Vinyl chloride
    • Others Acrylamide, Antibiotics (in animal feed), DES, Dioxins
environmental contaminants39
Environmental Contaminants
  • Mercury
    • All fish have at least trace amounts of mercury and other contaminants (PCBs, dioxins, and DDT)
  • The FDA and EPA warns of high methylmercury levels in fish and other seafood
    • They advise all pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children against eating fish species high in methylmercury
effects of food processing on the nutrients in foods
Effects of Food Processing on the Nutrients in Foods

Consumers rely on packaged and processed foods

On the positive side it makes food safer and gives food a longer useable shelflife by preventing:

  • Microbial growth
  • Oxidative changes
  • Enzyme destruction

On the negative side some vitamins and minerals are lost

Pasteurization makes milk safe to drink

  • Worth the nutrient loss
  • Boxes of milk that can be kept at room temperature have been treated with ultrahigh temperature (UHT)
effects of food processing extended shelf life
Effects of Food Processing Extended Shelf Life
  • Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)
  • Perishable food is packaged in a container from which air is removed (vacuum packed) or another gas mixture has been added to exclude oxygen
    • Slows ripening of fruits and vegetables
    • Reduces spoilage by mold and bacterial growth
    • Prevents discoloration of cut vegetables and fruit
    • Prevents spoilage of fats by rancidity
    • Slows development of “off” flavors
    • Slows enzymatic breakdown of vitamins
effects of food processing canning
Effects of Food ProcessingCanning
  • Protects against microbes but has fewer nutrients
  • High heat/short time
  • Fat soluble vitamins and minerals are not effected
  • Affected Thiamin, Riboflavin and Vitamin C
  • Minerals and water soluble vitamins are lost in the water
effects of food processing freezing
Effects of Food Processing Freezing

Lowers the food’s temperature to a point that stops life processes

  • Microorganisms do not die but remain dormant until the food is thawed
  • Slows enzymatic reactions
  • Nutrient contents are similar to those of fresh foods
  • Often contain more nutrients than fresh fruits and vegetables that have stayed in the produce department
  • Foods frozen have to be kept solidly frozen at 0°F, to be safe and retain their nutrients
  • If foods defrost slightly but ice crystals remain - It is probably safe to refreeze the food for later use
effects of food processing drying
Effects of Food Processing Drying
  • Drying
    • Preserves food by removing water to inhibit microbial growth
    • Commercial drying does not cause major nutrient losses
  • Sulfite additives
    • Used for drying fruits
      • Prevent browning
      • Helps preserve vitamin C
      • Some people suffer severe allergic reactions when they consume sulfites
food additives
Food Additives

What are food additives?

    • Substances added to foods that are not eaten by themselves as foods
    • Additives give foods desirable characteristics : Color, Flavor, Texture, Stability, Resistance to spoilage
  • The FDA decides what additives shall be in foods
    • All are periodically reviewed
    • None are permanently approved

Compared to the unregulated and untested “dietary supplements” sold directly to consumers, the 3,000 food additives in the U.S. are strictly controlled

food additives48
Food Additives
  • Antimicrobial agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Artificial colors
  • Artificial flavors, flavor enhancers
  • Bleaching agents
  • Chelating agents
  • Nutrients
  • Preservatives
  • Thickening and stabilizing agents
food additives antimicrobial agents preservatives
Food Additives Antimicrobial Agents--Preservatives

1.Salt and Sugar --most widely used

  • Salt is used to preserve meat and fish
  • Sugar preserves jams, jellies, and canned and frozen fruits
  • Salt and sugar withdraw water from food -Microbes cannot grow without water

2. Potassium sorbate & sodium propionate

  • Extend the shelf life of baked goods, cheese, beverages, mayonnaise, margarine

3. Nitrites

  • Added to meats and meat products to preserve color, enhance flavor, & retard bacterial growth
food additives50
Food Additives

4. Sulfites

  • Prevents oxidation in processed foods, alcoholic beverages, and drugs
  • Were used to keep raw fruits and vegetables in salad bars looking fresh
    • Banned after a few people experienced dangerous allergic reactions

5. BHA and BHT

  • Prevent rancidity in baked goods and snack foods

6. Food coloring

  • makes foods look attractive

7. Artificial flavors

- 2,000 flavors and enhancers are approved

8. MSG produces adverse reactions in some people

- Flavor enhancer

food additives51
Food Additives

9. Incidental

  • Include bits of plastic, glass, paper, tin from packages and chemicals from processing, such as solvents used to decaffeinate coffees
  • Dioxinsare found incoffee filters, paper milk cartons,paper plates, and frozen food boxes made of bleached paper

10. Nutrients

  • Iodine added to salt
  • Vitamins A and D added to dairy products
  • Nutrients used to enrich and fortify breakfast cereals and grains
  • Vitamins C and E used as antioxidants
  • Beta-carotene as a colorant
regulations governing additives
Regulations Governing Additives
  • The GRAS list (generally recognized as safe)
    • A list of 700 substances that were used routinely without any problems for many years. When substantial scientific evidence or public outcry has questioned the safety of a GRAS list additive its safety has been reevaluated by FDA.
preserving nutrients in foods
Preserving Nutrients in Foods
  • Conserving Nutrients at Home
      • In modern commercial processing, losses of vitamins seldom exceed 25%
      • Losses of 60% - 75% can occur during food preparation at home
  • Enzymes can cause destruction of vitamins
      • Breakdown of nutrients in fresh fruits and vegetables occurs at room temperature (70°F). Chilling slows the breakdown.
  • Light and air cause the breakdown of some vitamins-Riboflavin is light sensitive (milk)
  • Refreezing causes texture and taste changes and loss of nutrient content
preserving nutrients in foods54
Preserving Nutrients in Foods
  • Minerals and water-soluble vitamins in vegetables dissolve in water in which they are washed, boiled, or canned
      • As much as half of the vitamins and minerals in foods go down the drain with the water
  • Ways to minimize cooking losses
    • Steam, stir-fry or microwave vegetables
    • Use the liquid in soup or stews
controversy organic foods and genetically modified foods what are the pros and cons
Controversy: Organic Foods And Genetically Modified Foods: What Are The Pros and Cons?

Organic food is one of the fastest growing segments of the food industry

    • At the same time, many U.S. farms have shifted toward growing foods altered through genetic engineering (GE)
      • 80% of soybeans, 40% of corn, 70% of cotton
  • Issues Surrounding Organic Foods
    • A farmer wishing to grow and market organic foods must receive certification by USDA inspectors
      • Food sold or labeled as organic, must be processed according to the procedures outlined in the following slide
organic foods
Organic Foods
  • Environmental Benefits
    • Organic foods are grown by using the techniques of sustainable agriculture
    • Vegetables and fruits are fertilized with composted animal manure or vegetable matter with no synthetic fertilizers that can run off into waterways and pollute them
    • No synthetic pesticides or disease-fighting agents are applied
    • Chemical impact on wildlife and humans is minimal
organic foods60
Organic Foods
  • Potential Health Risks
    • Organic foods may not be safer than conventional foods
      • Improperly composted manure fertilizer may expose consumers to microbial diseases
      • Unpasteurized organic juices, milk, and cheeses may be microbial hazards
      • Lack of preservatives causes more spoilage
  • Costs
    • Organic foods cost more than conventional foods
genetically modified foods
Genetically Modified Foods
  • Like organic food production, genetic engineering carries its own potential set of risks and rewards
    • Unlike the tried and true organic foods, GE food varieties are new to the food supply
Genetic Engineering
    • The consumer may not be able to distinguish genetically altered food from food that has notbeen genetically altered because it bears no special labels
genetically modified foods63
Genetically Modified Foods
  • Benefits of genetic engineering
    • Enhanced plant growth
    • Reduced pesticide and fertilizer use
    • Enhanced nutrient composition
    • Enhanced crop yields
  • Risks
    • Potential for new allergens
    • Herbicide resistant weeds
    • Loss of biodiversity
genetically modified foods64
Genetically Modified Foods
  • Genetic Engineering Basics
    • Geneticengineering can change the genetic makeup of an organism in a year or two
    • Cross-breeding in nature and selective breeding in agriculture, is a lengthy process
genetically modified foods65
Genetically Modified Foods
  • Plant genetics
    • Traditional breeding
      • Cross two plants, develop hybrids, takes time
    • Genetic engineering
      • Transform specific genes
      • Less time to get desiredeffects
genetically modified foods66
Genetically Modified Foods
  • The Promises of Genetic Engineering
    • Supporters see it as a means of overcoming many of the planet’s pressing problems, such as
      • Food shortages
      • Nutrient deficiencies
      • Medicine shortages
      • Dwindling farmland
      • Environmental degradation
genetically modified foods67
Genetically Modified Foods
  • New crops can now resist insects without sprays
  • Survive drought
  • Provide more complete sources of protein for people without access to animal products or adequate vegetable proteins
genetically modified foods68
Genetically Modified Foods
  • GM Microorganisms can change production of foods
      • Bacteria can make the enzyme rennin needed in cheese production
      • In the past rennin was obtained from the stomachs of calves
  • GM bacteria produces human growth hormone
    • More children with growth hormone deficiency can grow normally
  • Others GM bacteria produce the hormone insulin
genetically modified foods69
Genetically Modified Foods
  • The current manufacturing process of fortifying and enriching wheat, rice, grains, and milk products may become obsolete if rDNA added to plants and animals can make the extra nutrients in their tissues
  • Consumers may see favorite foods such as potatoes turned into “functional foods” that contain phytochemicals borrowed from foods such as flaxseed
genetically modified foods70
Genetically Modified Foods
  • Opposition to Biotechnology
    • Some fear that by tampering with the basic blueprint of life, genetic engineering will sooner or later unleash mayhem on an unsuspecting world
    • Opponents view biotechnology firms as naïve and profit driven
  • Proponents of genetic engineering respond that most of the world’s people cannot afford the luxury of rejecting the benefits of technology
genetically modified foods71
Genetically Modified Foods
  • Opponents point out that while rDNA technology benefits biotechnology companies and giant industrial farms, it has produced no real benefits for consumers and the risks are not defined
  • Others object to rDNA technology on religious grounds
    • Holding that genetic decisions are best left to nature or a higher power