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  1. The Cell Biology Grade XI Science Semester 2 RSBI Program SMA Negeri 1 Pekalongan Jalan RA Kartini 39 PekalonganTelp (0285) 421190

  2. Menu to start study cell, click navigation menu on the right click next menu The Cell Guidance Competence Introduction Chemical Component Cell Plant Cell Animal Cell Transport Membrane Evaluation Author

  3. Guidance click next menu The Cell This media create by using Microsoft Power point software and other support software Before studying this media, you should read a biology book about Cell Follow the directions on the navigation on the media for studying the material systematically Consult to biology teacher if you found some problems related to the material You are pass if can finish the evaluation in this media at least 80 Good luck

  4. Competence click next menu The Cell • Standard of competence • 1. To understand about structure and function of cell as the smallest unit of life • Basic competence • 1.1. To describe the chemical component of cell, its structure and function as the smallest unit of life • 1.2. To identify cellular organs animals and plants • 1.3. To compare transport mechanism of membrane (diffusion, osmosis, active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis)

  5. Introduction The Cell The cell is one of the most basic units of life.  There are millions of different types of cells.  There are cells that are organisms onto themselves, such as microscopic amoeba and bacteria cells.  And there are cells that only function when part of a larger organism, such as the cells that make up your body.  The cell is the smallest unit of life in our bodies.  In the body, there are brain cells, skin cells, liver cells, stomach cells, and the list goes on.  All of these cells have unique functions and features.  And all have some recognizable similarities.  All cells have a 'skin', called the plasma membrane, protecting it from the outside environment.  The cell membrane regulates the movement of water, nutrients and wastes into and out of the cell.  Inside of the cell membrane are the working parts of the cell.  At the center of the cell is the cell nucleus.  The cell nucleus contains the cell's DNA, the genetic code that coordinates protein synthesis.  In addition to the nucleus, there are many organelles inside of the cell - small structures that help carry out the day-to-day operations of the cell. 

  6. Introduction The Cell One important cellular organelle is the ribosome.  Ribosome participate in protein synthesis.  The transcription phase of protein synthesis takes places in the cell nucleus.  After this step is complete, the mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to the cell's ribosome, where translation occurs.  Another important cellular organelle is the mitochondrion.  Mitochondria (many mitochondrion) are often referred to as the power plants of the cell because many of the reactions that produce energy take place in mitochondria.  Also important in the life of a cell are the lysosome.  Lysosome are organelles that contain enzymes that aid in the digestion of nutrient molecules and other materials.  Below is a labelled diagram of a cell to help you identify some of these structures.

  7. Introduction The Cell Theory of cell Robert Hooke (England, 1935-1703) was the first person introducing cell term in his book, Micrographia (1665). He examined cork cut from stem of cork oak, Quercussuber, by using his own designed microscope, he named the rooms is cell Anthony van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch, 1632-1723) became the first person who saw a very small living organism in straw soak by using a simple microscope. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (French, 1744-1829) said that every living organism was composed of cells and in each cell there moved complex liquid. Scheliden and Schwann, Scleiden was botanist, while Schwann is animal anatomist. They thought that each body of plant and animal consist of cell

  8. Introduction click next menu The Cell Theory of cell Felix Dujardin (1835) said that the most important part of living cell was the liquid that always resided in every living cell (protoplasm) Johannes Purkinje and Hugo van Mohl (1840), introduced the term of protoplasm Max Schultze (1825-1874) thought that protoplasm was the primary structure of living organisms that make all living process Rudolf Virchow (1858) thought that every cell came from the prior cell (omniscellulacellula) Robert Brown, succeeded in finding nucleus.

  9. Chemical Component Cell The Cell Matter is made of combinations of elements substances such as hydrogen or carbon that cannot be broken down or converted into other substances by chemical means. The smallest particle of an element that still retains its distinctive chemical properties is an atom. However, the characteristics of substances other than pure elements including the materials from which living cells are made depend on the way their atoms are linked together in groups to form molecules. In order to understand how living organisms are built from inanimate matter, therefore, it is crucial to know how all of the chemical bonds that hold atoms together in molecules are formed. Water Biomolecule Mineral and Ion

  10. Chemical Component Cell click next menu The Cell Water A cell contains 85 – 95 % of water. Water function as solvent and the best diffusion media for the metabolism process in the cell and tissues. Biomolecule Biomoleculecompunds are divided into two types, macromolecule and micromolecule. Macromolecule are generally known as four forms : protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrate and lipid. Mineral and Ion Minerals and ions are component of cell that are also important as well as other chemical components.

  11. Plant Cell nucleus membrane citoplasm nucleolus mitocondria ribosome lysosome RE golgi centriole cytoskeleton vacuole microbody plastids The Cell

  12. Plant Cell click next menu The Cell A plant cell is bounded by a cell wall and the living portion of the cell is within the walls and is divided into two portions: the nucleus, or central control center; and the cytoplasm, a fluid in which membrane bound organelles are found. Between the primary cell walls of adjacent plant cells, lies a pectic middle lamella. There can be a secondary cell wall which would be located just to the inside of the primary wall. Both walls consist mainly of cellulose, but the secondary cell wall may contain lignin and other substances.

  13. Animal Cell nucleus membrane citoplasm nucleolus mitocondria ribosome lysosome RE golgi centriole cytoskeleton vacuole microbody plastids The Cell

  14. Animal Cell click next menu The Cell Animal cells are eukaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike prokaryotic cells, DNA in animal cells is housed within the nucleus. In addition to having a nucleus, animal cells also contain other membrane-bound organelles, or tiny cellular structures, that carry out specific functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Organelles have a wide range of responsibilities that include everything from producing hormones and enzymes to providing energy for animal cells.

  15. Nucleus Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell The most prominent organelle in an animal cell is normally the nucleus. The nucleus contains most of the genes that control the cell. The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating the contents from the cytoplasm. This envelope is a double membrane, made up of a lipid bilayer with associated proteins.

  16. Nucleus Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell The nuclear side of the envelope is lined by the nuclear lamina, which is a netlike array of protein filaments that keep the shape of the nucleus. Also within is the chromatin, a material that organizes DNA and proteins. When the cells beginnings to reproduce, the chromatin condenses becoming thick separate structures know as chromosomes.

  17. Nucleolus Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is a non-membrane bound structurecomposed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is transcribed and assembled within the nucleolus. The nucleolus ultrastructure can be visualized through an electron microscope, while the organization and dynamics can be studied through fluorescent protein tagging and fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Malfunction of nucleoli can be the cause for several human diseases. It takes up to about 25% of the nuclear volume.

  18. Cytoplasm Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell The cytoplasm consists of all of the contents outside of the nucleus and enclosed within the cell membrane of a cell. This includes the cytosol and in euckaryotic cells, organelles such as mitochondria and ribosomes. Also located within the cytoplasm is the cytoskeleton, a network of fibers that help the cell maintain its shape and give it support. The cytoplasm is clear in color and has a gel-like appearance. It is composed mainly of water and also contains enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules. The cytoplasm helps to move materials around the cell and also dissolves cellular waste.

  19. Cell Membrane Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell The cell membrane or plasma membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. It basically protects the cell from outside forces. It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, glycocalyx, and intracellular cytoskeleton.

  20. Cell Membrane Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell The plasma membrane (cell membrane) is made of two layers of phospholipids. The membrane has many proteins embedded in it. The plasma membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Many molecules cross the cell membrane by diffusion and osmosis.

  21. Ribosome Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell - RibosomBerfungsimensintesis protein - Protein merupakanzatpembangun, zatpelindung, reparasi. The Cell Ribosomes are the sites where protein molecules are synthesized from amino acids. They are composed of proteins and RNA. Some ribosomes are found bound to granular endoplasmic reticulum, while others are free in the cytoplasm. The proteins synthesized on ribosomes bound to granular endoplasmic reticulum are transferred from the lumen (open space inside endoplasmic reticulum) to the golgi apparatus for secretion outside the cell or distribution to other organelles. The proteins that are synthesized of free ribosomes are released into the cytosol.

  22. Ribosome Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Ribosomes consist of two sub units and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. Free ribosomes function in the cytosol, while bound ribosomes generally make proteins that are for inclusion into the membrane, packaging, or for export from the cell.

  23. Mitochondrion Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell Fungsi Mitochondria sebagaiAlatRespirasi The Cell Mitochondria are some of the most important structures in the cell. They are they site of various chemical processes involved in the synthesis of energy packets called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Each mitochondrion is surrounded by two membranes. The outer membrane is smooth, while the inner one is folded into tubule structures called cristae. Mitochondria are unique in that they contain small amounts of DNA containing the genes for the synthesis of some mitochondrial proteins. The DNA is inherited solely from the mother. Cells with greater activity have more mitochondria, while those that are less active have less need for energy producing mitochondria.

  24. Endoplasmic Reticulum Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Endoplasmic reticulum makes up more then half the membrane of the cell. There are two different kinds of endoplasmic reticulum: smooth and rough. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum appears to be smooth because it lacks ribosomes on the cytoplasmicsurface. Yet the other endoplasmic reticulum appears rough because ribosomes stud the cytoplasmic surface. After leaving the endoplasmic reticulum, many transport vesicles travel to the Golgi apparatus. This apparatus consists of flattened membranous sacs. This is the center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting and shipping. Here the products of the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and sorted then sent to their destination.

  25. Lysosomes Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules. Hydrolytic enzymes and lysosomal membrane are made by rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transferred to a Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes function in intracellular digestion in a variety of circumstance.

  26. Golgi Apparatus Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell Contohsekresi : mengeluarkanludah Sekresi : zat yang masihdigunakan The Cell The golgi apparatus is a membranous sac that serves to modify and sort proteins into secretory/transport vesicles. The vesicles are then delivered to other cell organelles and the plasma membrane. Most cells have at least one golgi apparatus, although some may have multiple. The apparatus is usually located near the nucleus.

  27. Centriole Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell A centriole is a barrel-shaped cell structure found in most animal eukaryotic cells, though it is absent in higher plants and most fungi.The walls of each centriole are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules (protein of the cytoskeleton).

  28. Centriole Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Deviations from this structure include Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets, and Caenorhabditiselegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets;. Crabs may also exhibit nine doublets, (see picture). An associated pair of centrioles, arranged perpendicularly and surrounded by an amorphous mass of dense material (the pericentriolar material) constitutes the compound structure known as the centrosome.

  29. Plastids Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Plastids are major organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cell. Plastids often contain pigments used in photosynthesis, and the types of pigments present can change or determine the cell's color. They possess a double-stranded DNA molecule, which is circular, like that of prokaryotes.

  30. Plastids Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Chloroplasts It is necessary to note a bit about the form of chloroplasts, as you will encounter them throughout this tutorial. Inside a chloroplast is a matrix called the stroma. Enzymes are found in the stroma as well as grana—stacks of coin-shaped discs, called thylakoids. It is within the thylakoids that photosynthesis takes place. Note that chloroplasts, like mitochondria contain their own DNA. They do rely on proteins from the nucleus, and are considered semi-autonomous organelles. Photosynthesis will be discussed in greater detail in the Plant Metabolism tutorial.

  31. Cytoskeleton Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Non membrane organelles within the cells include microtubules and microfilaments. They form a framework called the cytoskeleton, which reinforces the cells shape and functions in cell movement. The cytoskeleton is constructed from at least three types of fiber microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments.

  32. Cytoskeleton Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Microtubules are hollow tubes composed of a protein called tubulin. They are the thickest and most rigid of the filaments. Microtubules are present in the axons and long dendrite projections of nerve cells. They are capable of rapid assembly and disassembly according to need. Microtubules are structured around a cell region called the centrosome, which surrounds two centrioles composed of 9 sets of fused microtubules. These are important in cell division when the centrosome generates the microtubluar spindle fibers necessary for chromosome separation.

  33. Cytoskeleton Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Microfilaments are the thinnest and most abundant of the cytoskeleton proteins. They are composed of actin, a contractile protein, and can be assembled and disassembled quickly according to the needs of the cell or organelle structure.

  34. Cytoskeleton Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Intermediate filaments are slightly larger in diameter and are found most extensively in regions of cells that are going to be subjected to stress. Once these filaments are assembled they are not capable of rapid disassembly.

  35. Vacuole Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells. Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed. Vacuoles are formed by the fusion of multiple membrane vesicles and are effectively just larger forms of these. The organelle has no basic shape or size; its structure varies according to the needs of the cell. The function and importance of vacuoles varies greatly according to the type of cell in which they are present, having much greater prominence in the cells of plants, fungi and certain protists than those of animals and bacteria.

  36. Vacuole Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell In general, the functions of the vacuole include: Isolating materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell Containing waste products Containing water in plant cells Maintaining internal hydrostatic pressure or turgor within the cell Maintaining an acidic internal pH Containing small molecules Exporting unwanted substances from the cell Allows plants to support structures such as leaves and flowers due to the pressure of the central vacuole In seeds, stored proteins needed for germination are kept in 'protein bodies', which are modified vacuoles

  37. Microbody Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell The Cell Peroxisomes are also bound by a single membrane. They consume oxygen and work to drive reactions that remove hydrogen from various molecules in the form of hydrogen peroxide. They are important in maintaining the chemical balances within the cell.

  38. Microbody Plant Cell Back to Animal Cell click next menu The Cell Glioksisom a micro entity which is found only in plant cells. Glioksisom diameter between 0.5 to 1.0 micrometers. Glioksisom only found in plant cells, such as the aleurone layer of grains. Aleurone is a form of protein or crystals contained in the vacuole. Glioksisom found in many grains that act as a place to store the energy for the formation of fatty acids in the germination process.

  39. Transport in Membrane The Cell Every living cell must always include the necessary material and dispose of the remains of metabolism. To maintain the concentration of ions in the cytoplasm, the cell also always insert and remove certain ions. entry and exit arrangements to and from the material into cells is strongly influenced by the permeability of the membrane. The inside layer of the lipid bilayer is hydrophobic, so it can not be penetrated by polar molecules and substances that are soluble in water. Transport materials are soluble in water and uncharged played by integral membrane proteins. Transport of small molecules through the membrane performed passively (passive transport) or actively (active transport). Both kinds of transport is done in an integrated manner to maintain intracellular conditions to remain constant.

  40. Transport in Membrane The Cell

  41. Transport in Membrane The Cell Advantages of substance transport : Maintaining the stability of pH Maintaining the concentration of substances in cell Obtaining the supply of food, energy material, and other raw material Secreting poisonous metabolism waste Providing important ions for nerve and muscle activities

  42. Transport in Membrane The Cell Transport of the membrane consists of: Passive transport: the transport of substances that do not require energy, eg diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis Active transport: the transport of membranes that requires energy for example: Na and K pump, macromolecular transport, exocytosis, endocytosis

  43. Diffusion The Cell Diffusion describes the spread of particles through random motion from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. The time dependence of the statistical distribution in space is given by the diffusion equation. The concept of diffusion is tied to that of mass transfer driven by a concentration gradient. Diffusion is invoked in the social sciences to describe the spread of ideas.

  44. Osmosis The Cell Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, aiming to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.It may also be used to describe a physical process in which any solvent moves, without input of energy,across a semipermeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations.Although osmosis does not require input of energy, it does use kinetic energy and can be made to do work. Net movement of solvent is from the less concentrated (hypotonic) to the more concentrated (hypertonic) solution, which tends to reduce the difference in concentrations. This effect can be countered by increasing the pressure of the hypertonic solution, with respect to the hypotonic. The osmotic pressure is defined to be the pressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property, meaning that the osmotic pressure depends on the molar concentration of the solute but not on its identity.

  45. Osmosis The Cell

  46. Facilitated Diffusion The Cell Facilitated diffusion (also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport) is a process of passive transport, facilitated by integral proteins. Facilitated diffusion is the spontaneous passage of molecules or ions across a biological membrane passing through specific transmembrane integral proteins. The facilitated diffusion may occur either across biological membranes or through aqueous compartments of an organism. Polar molecules and charged ions are dissolved in water but they can not diffuse freely across the plasma membrane due to the hydrophobic nature of the fatty acid tails of phospholipids that make up the lipid bilayers. Only small nonpolar molecules, such as oxygen can diffuse easily across the membrane. All polar molecules are transported across membranes by proteins that form transmembrane channels. These channels are gated so they can open and close, thus regulating the flow of ions or small polar molecules. Larger molecules are transported by transmembrane carrier proteins, such as permeases that change their conformation as the molecules are carried through, for example glucose or amino acids.

  47. Facilitated Diffusion The Cell Non-polar molecules, such as retinol or fatty acids are poorly soluble in water. They are transported through aqueous compartments of cells or through extracellular space by water-soluble carriers as retinol binding protein. The metabolites are not changed because no energy is required for facilitated diffusion. Only permease changes its shape in order to transport the metabolites. The form of transport through cell membrane which modifies its metabolites is the group translocation transportation. Glucose, sodium ions and choride ions are just a few examples of molecules and ions that must efficently get across the plasma membrane but to which the lipid bilayer of the membrane is virtually impermiable. Their transport must therefore be "facilitated" by proteins that span the membrane and provide an alternative route or bypass.

  48. Facilitated Diffusion The Cell

  49. Active Transport The Cell Active transport is the movement of a substance against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration). In all cells, this is usually concerned with accumulating high concentrations of molecules that the cell needs, such as ions, glucose and amino acids. If the process uses chemical energy, such as from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), it is termed primary active transport. Secondary active transport involves the use of an electrochemical gradient. Active transport uses energy, unlike passive transport, which does not use any type of energy. Active transport is a good example of a process for which cells require energy. Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose in the intestines in humans and the uptake of mineral ions into root hair cells of plants

  50. Active Transport The Cell

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