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  1. The PLANCK mission & on behalf of the PLANCK collaboration Cécile Renault Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie Grenoble - France

  2. from CMB to cosmology • COBE : T3K & large scale anisotropies  hot BB • Balloons & ground-based experiments : intermediate scale fluctuations  inflation • WMAP : large to med. scale T & large scale TE anisotropies  concordance model • Planck will measure large to small scale T & E anisotropies & constrain B-mode fluctuations •  • Precision cosmology, • new physics ? Planck 1 year 5 x 5 deg. Field T anisotropies WMAP 2 years WMAP 8 years 94 GHz - 15’ FWHM 217 GHz - 5’ FWHM Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  3. WMAP 4 years Planck - 15 months designed to be cosmic variance limited across essentially the entire primary MB T anisotropy power spectrum Blue book simulations T Power spectra From pure CMB maps Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  4. WMAP 5 years Nolta et al 2008 Blue book simulations Detailed history of reionization & tests of adiabaticity to high precison E Power spectra From pure CMB maps Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  5. B-mode sensitivity From pure CMB maps Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  6. CMB as a powerful tool • CMB = picture of the Universe ~ 380,000 years after BB • temperature predicted by the BB model • propertiesstrongly linked to inflation : • perturbation generation mechanism • ~ scale invariance •  ~ 1 predicted • Enough information to check most of the hypotheses • all sky  isotropy checked • known linear physics predicts the distribution  gaussianity checked • large leverage redshift distribution when combined with other observables (clusters, supernovae …) to check structure evolution • Link between cosmology & high energy physics • sound speed at recombination  Universe content • neutrinos mass • footprint of the energy scale of inflation Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  7. Need for accuracy Blue Book simulations Comparing concordance CDM model with ns = 0.95 and no run (solid line) and same ns (at fiducial wave number k0 = 0.5 Mpc-1) and run dns/dln k = -0.03 TOP : —model with no running index ·simulated observations with running index  deviations from a pure scale invariant power spectrum would provide a firm probe of the dynamics of an inflationary period Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  8. bh2ch2 ns nrunlog[1010As] H0 Cosmological parameters main parameters : better than % Precision predictions & measurements  tests of new physics become possible Blue book simulations Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  9. low temperature instrument  similar sensitivity per 20’ pixel for WMAP 8 years @ 70 K and Planck low frequency 1 year @ 20 K • or for WMAP 1 year @ 70 K and Planck high freq. 12 hours @ 0.1 K • high redundancy for noise reduction and systematic effects monitoring • large spectral leverage • from 30 to 857 GHz for efficient separation of Galactic emission, from synchrotron to dust Instrumental challenges & Planck solutions • Tiny signal  “equivalent to the thermal emission from a rabbit living on the Moon, as seen from Earth, with a human being close to the detector” • T  E  B : signals decreased by orders of magnitude • Significant additive signals from foregrounds Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  10. Secondary anisotropies + follow-up with Herschel Extra-galactic srcs Milky Way Solar system Bonus : a wealth of unique data ! • Measurement of the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in > 104 galaxy clusters • gravitational lensing effect • Radio galaxies, BL Lac objects, quasars • Low and high redshift dusty galaxies • Bulk velocities on scales > 300 Mpc • Far-infrared background fluctuations • Evolution of clusters up to z > 1 • Dust & gas distribution in the Milky Way • Dust properties, cloud & cirrus morphology • Star forming regions, cold molecular clouds • Galactic magnetic field from synchrotron and dust emission • Study of planets • Measurements of hundreds of asteroids, comets • zodiacal light Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  11. The Planck mission • 1m50 ø telescope • up to 5’ resolution • Designed for large focal plane and minimal intrinsic polarization • 2 instruments : • Low Frequency Instrument • 30 to 70 GHz @ 20 K • High Frequency Instrument • 100 to 857 GHz @ 0.1 K Sensitivity of 2 10-6T/ T ESA mission : first European satellite dedicated to CMB study HFI PI : J.-L. Puget (France) LFI PI : N. Mandolesi (Italy) Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  12. Low Frequency Instrument Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  13. High Frequency Instrument Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  14. Estimated Instrument Performance Goals Credits : ESA- AOES medialab The focal plane The HFI plate (100 to 857 GHz) is surrounded by LFI horns (30 to 70 GHz) 20 K 0.1 K In 10-6 In 10-6 Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  15. Credits: ESA Scanning direction Focal plane geometry (on the sky) allows easier systematic effects correction already at the hour scale The scanning strategy From the L2 Lagrange point 30 to 50 times the same circle, then shift of a third of the smallest beam  full sky survey in 7 months Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  16. CMB map (1 deg.smoothed) I map at 353 GHz Q map at 353 GHz New but experienced technology LFI  WMAP HFI Archeops  balloon-borne experiment - 12 hour flight Bolometers @ 0.1 K - 143 to 545 GHz polarized channel @ 353 GHz February 7th 2002 flight all references on www.archeops.org Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  17. Data processing & releases • Computational challenge : • up to ~1010 points in the time stream • 5 107 pixels per map Hybrid approaches allow to obtain in a reasonable time the most accurate results reducing the conceptual simplifications to a minimum. • Removing systematic effects • Separating the different components •  • Calibrated timelines • Maps per frequency • Maps per component • Compact source catalogue Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  18. Planck is on the way … • Final assembly @Alcatel alenia space • Spring 2008 : last tests at CSL Liege • Required levels confirmed by calibration campaigns Then launch on Ariane 5 wih Herschel, scheduled for October 31st 2008 Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  19. Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  20. Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  21. The cryogenic system 0.1 K plate (HFI) Main mirror 50 K 1.6 K intermediate stage Instruments 18 & 0.1 K shields 50-60 K (passive cooling) Service module 300 K He3 He4 He4 He4 LFI @ 18 K - HFI @ 0.1 K Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  22. Credits : ESA The telescope • off-axis aplanic design • 2 elliptical reflectors • 1.5 m projected  • optimized for a large focal plane & minimal intrinsic polarization Operational T ~ 50 K Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008

  23. to the L2 Lagrange point in the Earth shadow Launch & orbit Common launch with Herschel from Kourou by Ariane V Scheduled for summer 2008 Herschel Planck Cécile Renault “Rencontres de Moriond” on Cosmology March, 17th, 2008