ST&NS -Opening Thoughts Science, Technology & National Security Early considerations: Historical definitions of national security* Scientists and the politics of national security -historical considerations Federal agencies, scientists, and national security
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Science, Technology & National Security
Historical definitions of national security*
Scientists and the politics of national security -historical considerations
Federal agencies, scientists, and national security
Politicians and the national security leverage of science & technology
Cultural contrasts between scientists and national security staff
Inducing controlled fission
The scientists who worked on the project were back row, from left, Norman Hilberry, Samuel Allison, Thomas Brill, Robert Nobles, Warren Nyer, and Marvin Wilkening. Middle row, Harold Agnew, William Sturm, Harold Lichtenberger, Leona Marshall and Leo Szilard. Front row, Enrico Fermi, Walter Zinn, Albert Wattenber and Herbert Anderson.
The K-25 plant, Oakridge
Fatman dropped on Nagasaki -August, 1945
Nagasaki, August 9, 1945
The USA and the USSR, allies in WWII become adversaries
The USSR explodes an atomic bomb (1949)
American scientists explore the design of an H-bomb (1950-52)
The USA and the USSR enter into a competition of nuclear weapons development
Science in pursuit of knowledge
influence upon national security policy
Ivy Mike Test (1952)
USA, USSR, and Britain test weapons design in the atmosphere, in space, under water.
Background radiation in parts of the world increase.
Bravo test showers The Lucky Dragon with heavy fallout (1954).
India, within the UN leads an initiative to end testing.
NationFirst Nuclear Detonation
South Africa ?
Craig, Jungerman, Nuclear Arms Race, 1990.
From 1945-1963, there are 650 test detonations of nuclear devices --most exploded in the atmosphere.
In 1963, international fear of radio-active fallout prompts the LTBT.
From 1963 to the present, a twilight struggle to ratify a CTBT ensues --and another 1100 nuclear detonations occur.
Sustaining technical expertise
Modernizing nuclear explosion detection systems
The explosive core in the primary of a nuclear weapon is plutonium.
Plutonium decays (half-life = 24,100 years)
239Pu 235U + 4He
Alpha particles induce crystal modifications within the core that reduce its explosive yield and the reliability of the weapon.
Sidney Drell, et al, Science, 2/19/99.
600,000 people work on the production of the arsenal
Warhead design and fabrication
Physics package assembly
At a cost of $5.5 trillion , that is $5.5 x1012
C&E News, Vol. 78, p. 10, Feb 7, 2000.
High-speed computing and microscopic ignition of fusion
Growing global supplies of fissile fuel
Underemployed weapons scientists
Escalating regional conflict
Ease of information flow
1956 - 1958 --Failed American Soviet negotiations
1958 - 1961 --Testing moratorium
1963 --The LTBT
1976 --The TTBT
1996 --The CTBTsigned
1999 --CTBT ratification not recommended by Senate
CTBT is a ninety-nine page document, largely concerned with establishing and operating the International Monitoring System (IMS)
IMS is a collection of 321 seismic, infrasound, hyroacoustic, and radio-nuclide sensors distributed among 89 nations and Antarctica
Each nation will establish National Data Centers (NDC) and links to an International Data Centre (IDC), for purposes of sharing data
The purpose of CTBT is to discontinue experiments like this one
C&E News, October 19, 1998
Developing the algorithms and databases required for reliable detection at 167 stations
Los Alamos and Livermore National Labs