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ST&NS -Opening Thoughts Science, Technology & National Security Early considerations: Historical definitions of national security* Scientists and the politics of national security -historical considerations Federal agencies, scientists, and national security

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st ns opening thoughts

ST&NS -Opening Thoughts

Science, Technology & National Security

Early considerations:

Historical definitions of national security*

Scientists and the politics of national security -historical considerations

Federal agencies, scientists, and national security

Politicians and the national security leverage of science & technology

Cultural contrasts between scientists and national security staff

  • The balance between civilian and military development of technology for national security
stns terms and definitions
STNS -Terms and Definitions
  • Science: the pursuit of knowledge that reveals the character of nature.
  • Technology: the exploitation of nature for individual or collective gain.
  • National security: domestic tranquility and the preservation of national interests at home and abroad.
a premier example of stns the manhattan project 1940 45
A Premier Example of STNS: The Manhattan Project 1940-45
  • Project triggered by letter from Einstein to FDR (1939).
  • Project driven by gathering of American and émigré European scientists.
  • Project funded and guided by American military and political leaders.
scientific understanding knowledge and the root of power
Scientific Understanding: Knowledge and the Root of Power




Lise Meitner

Otto Hahn

Leo Szilard

Edward Teller

Stan Ulam

Andrei Sakharov

manhattan project the fermi reactor
Manhattan Project: The Fermi Reactor

Inducing controlled fission

the people who built the first nuclear reactor
The People Who Built the First Nuclear Reactor

The scientists who worked on the project were back row, from left, Norman Hilberry, Samuel Allison, Thomas Brill, Robert Nobles, Warren Nyer, and Marvin Wilkening. Middle row, Harold Agnew, William Sturm, Harold Lichtenberger, Leona Marshall and Leo Szilard. Front row, Enrico Fermi, Walter Zinn, Albert Wattenber and Herbert Anderson.

converting scientific knowledge into technological power the manhattan project 1940 45
Converting Scientific Knowledge Into Technological Power: the Manhattan Project (1940-45)
  • Identify fissile fuels.
  • Isolate fissile fuels in bomb-grade purity.
  • Assemble these fuels into a super-critical mass.
  • Deliver this technology to a target.
manhattan project acquiring the fissile fuel
Manhattan Project: Acquiring the Fissile Fuel

The K-25 plant, Oakridge

manhattan project first test of the gadget
Manhattan Project: First Test of “The Gadget.”

manhattan project testing the design of an a bomb
Manhattan Project: Testing the Design of an A-bomb

the manhattan project collaboration of science with the military
The Manhattan Project: Collaboration of Science With the Military

manhattan project two bomb designs fatman little boy
Manhattan Project: Two Bomb Designs, Fatman & Little Boy

the manhattan project delivering the weapon
The Manhattan Project: delivering the weapon

Fatman dropped on Nagasaki -August, 1945

manhattan project technology public policy
Manhattan project: Technology & Public Policy

Enrico Fermi

Vannevar Bush

Nagasaki, August 9, 1945

Robert Oppenheimer

from a bomb to h bomb technology and national security in the cold war
From A-bomb to H-bomb: Technology and National Security in the Cold War

The USA and the USSR, allies in WWII become adversaries

The USSR explodes an atomic bomb (1949)

American scientists explore the design of an H-bomb (1950-52)

The USA and the USSR enter into a competition of nuclear weapons development

testing the theory building the arsenal
Testing the Theory; Building the Arsenal

Science in pursuit of knowledge


influence upon national security policy

the cold war a frenzy of nuclear weapons testing
The Cold War -a Frenzy of Nuclear Weapons Testing

Ivy Mike Test (1952)

testing h bombs harvesting international outrage
Testing H-Bombs; Harvesting International Outrage

USA, USSR, and Britain test weapons design in the atmosphere, in space, under water.

Background radiation in parts of the world increase.

Bravo test showers The Lucky Dragon with heavy fallout (1954).

India, within the UN leads an initiative to end testing.

other nations other testing
Other Nations, Other Testing

NationFirst Nuclear Detonation

USA 1945

USSR 1949

England 1952

France 1959

China 1964

India 1974

Pakistan 1998

South Africa ?

Israel -

Craig, Jungerman, Nuclear Arms Race, 1990.

fallout detection of nuclear explosions the collision of politics and technology
Fallout & Detection of Nuclear ExplosionsThe Collision of Politics and Technology

From 1945-1963, there are 650 test detonations of nuclear devices --most exploded in the atmosphere.

In 1963, international fear of radio-active fallout prompts the LTBT.

From 1963 to the present, a twilight struggle to ratify a CTBT ensues --and another 1100 nuclear detonations occur.

the motivations for testing nuclear weapons
The Motivations for Testing Nuclear Weapons

Stockpile stewardship


Sustaining technical expertise

Modernizing nuclear explosion detection systems

Weapons effects


stns the science technology of stockpile stewardship
STNSThe Science & Technology of Stockpile Stewardship

The explosive core in the primary of a nuclear weapon is plutonium.

Plutonium decays (half-life = 24,100 years)

239Pu 235U + 4He

Alpha particles induce crystal modifications within the core that reduce its explosive yield and the reliability of the weapon.

Sidney Drell, et al, Science, 2/19/99.

the american investment in a nuclear arsenal 1945 2000
The American Investment in a Nuclear Arsenal1945-2000

600,000 people work on the production of the arsenal

Fuel production

Warhead design and fabrication

Design testing

Physics package assembly

Weapons assembly

At a cost of $5.5 trillion , that is $5.5 x1012

C&E News, Vol. 78, p. 10, Feb 7, 2000.

stns nuclear weapons testing new realities
STNSNuclear Weapons Testing: New Realities

High-speed computing and microscopic ignition of fusion

Growing global supplies of fissile fuel

Underemployed weapons scientists

Escalating regional conflict

Global commerce

Ease of information flow

stns the history of ctbt the collision of political and technological thought
STNSThe History of CTBT:The Collision of Political and Technological Thought

1956 - 1958 --Failed American Soviet negotiations

1958 - 1961 --Testing moratorium

1963 --The LTBT

1976 --The TTBT

1996 --The CTBTsigned

1999 --CTBT ratification not recommended by Senate

ctbt technology and detection the hinge of the dilemma
CTBTTechnology and Detection:The Hinge of the Dilemma

CTBT is a ninety-nine page document, largely concerned with establishing and operating the International Monitoring System (IMS)

IMS is a collection of 321 seismic, infrasound, hyroacoustic, and radio-nuclide sensors distributed among 89 nations and Antarctica

Each nation will establish National Data Centers (NDC) and links to an International Data Centre (IDC), for purposes of sharing data

the comprehensive test ban treaty ctbt
The Comprehensive Test Ban TreatyCTBT

The purpose of CTBT is to discontinue experiments like this one

C&E News, October 19, 1998

ctbt listening for nuclear explosions
CTBTListening for Nuclear Explosions

50 Stations



ctbt seismology and detection of nuclear explosions
CTBTSeismology and Detection of Nuclear Explosions

Developing the algorithms and databases required for reliable detection at 167 stations

Los Alamos and Livermore National Labs