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Listeriosis in the United States

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    1. Listeriosis in the United States

    2. Listeriosis Clinical characteristics Human health burden Trends in incidence Sources Conclusions

    3. 1. Clinical characteristics

    4. 1. Clinical characteristics Pregnancy-associated infection Non-pregnancy-associated infection - Immune compromised - Previously healthy

    5. Pregnancy-associated infection Pregnant woman may have fever, or not have a defined illness Spread to the fetus - Sepsis, miscarriage, stillbirth Spread to the newborn baby - Meningitis

    6. Non-pregnancy-associated infection Immune compromised (malignancy, organ transplant, immunosuppressive medications, HIV/AIDS) - Invasive disease (Sepsis, meningitis, encephalitis) Previously healthy - Most often asymptomatic - Diarrheal illness, rarely invasive

    7. Clinical outcomes of 169 laboratory-confirmed cases in the FoodNet, 2000-2003 28 (17%) pregnancy-associated cases All invasive infections 18 (65%) hospitalized 7 (25%) associated with stillbirth 141 (83%) non-pregnancy-associated cases All invasive infections 108 (76%) immune compromised 33 (24%) previously healthy 131 (92%) hospitalized 22 (15%) died Overall hospitalization rate 82% Overall mortality 17%

    8. 2. Human health burden

    9. Estimated annual human health burden of selected foodborne diseases, United States

    10. Incidence of invasive laboratory-confirmed Listeria infection in different population groups, FoodNet (1996-2003)

    11. Incidence of invasive laboratory-confirmed Listeria infection in different population groups, FoodNet (1996-2003)

    12. 3. Trends in incidence

    13. Early timeline: establishing surveillance

    14. Trend in incidence of laboratory-confirmed Listeria infection in sentinel sites in the United States, 1986-2008

    15. FoodNet Sites, 2009 The ten FoodNet sites are shown here in yellow. These include the states of Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, and Tennessee, and selected counties in California, Colorado, and New York. Approximately 46 million persons, or 15% of the U.S. population is covered under FoodNet surveillance. The ten FoodNet sites are shown here in yellow. These include the states of Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, and Tennessee, and selected counties in California, Colorado, and New York. Approximately 46 million persons, or 15% of the U.S. population is covered under FoodNet surveillance.

    16. National Health objectives for the incidence of laboratory-confirmed Listeria infection

    18. Trend in incidence of laboratory-confirmed Listeria infection No change in Listeria infections in 2008 compared with previous 3 years National Health objective for 2005 was 0.24 cases/100,000 persons 2004: 0.27 cases/100,000 persons 2005: 0.30 cases/100,000 persons 2006: 0.31 cases/100,000 persons 2007: 0.27 cases/100,000 persons 2008: 0.29 cases/100,000 persons

    20. Trend in incidence of laboratory-confirmed Listeria

    21. 4. Sources

    22. Sources of laboratory-confirmed Listeria infections

    23. Sources of laboratory-confirmed Listeria infections

    24. Case-control studies of sporadic infections 1986-87 (Schwartz B, et al. Lancet 1988) Uncooked or non-reheated hot dogs 1988-90 (Schuchat A, et al. JAMA 1992) Soft cheeses and food purchased at retail (deli counters) 2000-03 FoodNet (Varma J, Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007) Hummus and melons purchased at retail (grocery stores)

    25. Recent timeline: improving outbreak detection and response

    26. Trend in incidence of laboratory-confirmed cases of listeriosis in sentinel sites in the United States, 1986-2008

    27. PulseNet molecular fingerprinting network *These sites were the Pennsylvania State Public Health Laboratory, the PulseNet regional laboratory at the Virginia Department of Health, and at CDC *Coordinating the laboratory efforts in concert with the epidemiologic study required intense collaboration and communication *CDCs National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance, PulseNet, compared PFGE patterns of isolates from the participating laboratories *and with the national E. coli O157 database *These sites were the Pennsylvania State Public Health Laboratory, the PulseNet regional laboratory at the Virginia Department of Health, and at CDC *Coordinating the laboratory efforts in concert with the epidemiologic study required intense collaboration and communication *CDCs National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance, PulseNet, compared PFGE patterns of isolates from the participating laboratories *and with the national E. coli O157 database

    28. Trend in incidence of laboratory-confirmed cases of listeriosis in sentinel sites in the United States, 1986-2008

    29. 108 cases in 24 states, 13 were perinatal 14 deaths (all adults), 4 miscarriages Epidemiological investigation implicated eating hot dogs from Plant A

    30. Turkey deli meat-associated outbreak, 2002 54 patients in 9 states 42 non-pregnant adults 8 deaths, 3 miscarriages/stillbirths Outbreak was caused by turkey deli meat Post-processing contamination likely USDA-FSIS issued new microbial sampling policy Increased environmental testing Can base recall on testing of food contact surfaces

    31. Recent timeline: improving outbreak detection and response

    32. Listeria Initiative All isolates are fingerprinted in PulseNet Encourage states to use a standard case interview form Monitoring for clusters Immediate analysis of clusters using case-control study design Cases: serotype/genotype matched Controls: patients with non-matching isolates

    33. Trend in incidence of laboratory-confirmed cases of listeriosis in sentinel sites in the United States, 1986-2008

    34. Lm Outbreaks reported to CDC Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System, 1978-2007

    35. Outbreaks of Listeria monocytogenes Infections Reported to eFORS, 1998-2007

    36. Selected recent outbreaks: (1) February 2008 Routine testing of chicken salad at retail yielded Listeria; product recalled Patients PFGE pattern matched that of the recalled chicken products (patient died) Prompt interview of patients family Patient ate chicken salad from same plant but on list of recalled products Recall expanded Listeria isolated at the plant; plant temporarily closed

    37. Selected recent outbreaks: (2) August-September 2008 Outbreak in NYC hospital: 5 persons hospitalized for other reasons (immune suppressed), becam infected with Listeria of same PFGE pattern; 3 patients die Outbreak caused by tuna salad contaminated in the hospitals kitchen Listeria same PFGE isolated from kitchen Immune suppressed patients not on special diet (survey of NY city hospitals finds similar in other hospitals)

    38. Selected recent outbreaks: (3) October 2008-March 2009 Rapid patient interviews identifies Mexican style soft cheese in common (when have only 3 cases) Although outbreak lasts six months, identification of source was rapid 8 patients all Hispanic ethnicity; 7/8 pregnant (all stillborn) Traced to commercially-produced, pasteurized Mexican-style soft cheese Listeria with same PFGE isolated from patients, cheese, and plant: plant closed

    39. Selected recent outbreaks: (4) March 2008 March 2009 Prolonged outbreak: No common exposures identified using rapid interviews 20 patients in 7 states Hypothesis interviews identifies alfalfa sprouts eaten by couple cases Case-control study implicated alfalfa sprouts Outbreak caused by alfalfa sprouts produced at a single grower Listeria of same PFGE pattern isolated from patients, sprouts, and sprouting facility: facility closed

    40. Sources For last two decades outbreaks most often caused by: Processed ready-to-eat meats, especially turkey and hot dogs Typically contaminated after initial processing Locus of contamination in the processing plant Fresh soft cheeses made with raw milk Recent outbreak associated with alfalfa sprouts Sporadic cases associated with: Unreheated hot dogs, undercooked poultry Foods from a deli, soft cheeses Hummus, sliced melons

    41. 5. Conclusions

    42. General conclusions from the epidemiological data

    43. Thank you Thank you very much, and I would be happy to entertain questions. Thank you very much, and I would be happy to entertain questions.