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Latin America Peoples Win Independence. PG. 681-686. Colonial Society Divide. At this time in Latin America, class dictates your place in society and jobs Top of the class: Peninsulares (people born in Spain)

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Colonial society divide
Colonial Society Divide

  • At this time in Latin America, class dictates your place in society and jobs

  • Top of the class: Peninsulares (people born in Spain)

  • Creoles – Spainards born in Latin America. Could not hold high-level high office political jobs, but could rise as officers.

  • Mulattos: Persons mixed of European and African ancestry.

Revolutions in the americas
Revolutions in the Americas

  • By 1700s much of the Latin America was aware of the Enlightenment and news of the American/French Revolution encouraged them to gain freedom from their European Masters

Revolution in haiti
Revolution in Haiti

  • Saint Dominigue (French colony) was the first to free itself from European Rule

  • 500,000 Africans worked on French plantations (outnumbered their masters)

  • Masters used brutal measures to keep them powerless – can you see a revolution coming?

  • August 1791 100,000 Africans revolt

  • Toussaint L’Ouverture becomes the leader of Haitian Revolution

Revoution in haiti
Revoution in Haiti

  • January 1802, French troops arrive to take Touissant out. He states to end revolt, if France ends slavery

  • French agree, then accuse of planning another revolt – they seize him and send him to a prison in French Alps

Creoles lead independance
Creoles Lead Independance

  • Creoles were often the most educated people within Latin society – often traveled to Europe for education

  • Study Enlightenment ideas and when they return to Latin American – bring revolutionary ideas with them

  • Napoleon’s victory over Spain in 1808 led to many revolts within Spanish colonies

  • ZERO loyalty to a French king

Creoles land independance
Creoles Land Independance

  • 1810, many rebellions occurred in Latin America – drive for independence has begun

  • The South American wars of independence rested on two main people: Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin

Bolivar s victory
Bolivar’s Victory

  • Simon Bolivar, Venezuela, declared its independence from Spain in 1811

  • He leads a volunteer army of revolutionaries suffered many defeats. Had to go into exile twice

  • Turning point: August 1819, Bolivar leads 2,000 soldiers going through the Andes and takes the Spanish army by surprise and wins

  • 1821, Bolivar won Venezuela’s independance

San martin leads forces
San Martin Leads Forces

  • San Martin, Argentina, declared independence in 1816, but Spanish forces in Chile and Peru still posed a threat

  • 1817, Martin leads an army across the Andes into Chile. He is joined by Bernardo O’Higgins and with his help he helps free Argentina from Chile

Mexico ends spanish rule
Mexico ends Spanish Rule

  • In 1810, Padre Miguel Hidalgo took the first step towards independence.

  • September 16, 1810 he rang church bells of his village church and told everyone to join him in a rebellion against the Spanish

  • Very next day, 80,000 men join him and march towards Mexico City

Mexico ends spanish rule1
Mexico Ends Spanish Rule

  • Spanish forces defeat Hidalgo in 1811

  • The rebels who followed Hidalgo, then follow Jose Maria Morelos – he leads the revolution for four years

  • He is then defeated by a Creole officer named Agustin de Iturbide

  • Iturbide declares

    Independence in