Hip Hop Economic Stratification Federal Disinvestment Rooted in a Post-Industrial Urban Context Economic Globalization Privatization of Communication Networks
South Bronx A National Symbol of Urban Blight
Hip Hop: a Post-Industrial Style Naming Rapping DJing Identity Breakdancing Group Affiliation Graffitti Innovation A System of Meaning that takes place through Commodities
Hip Hop Hits the Mainstream Flashdance (1983) “Rapper’s Delight” (1979) Run-D.M.C. (1984) Breakin (1984) Tom Tom Club, “Wordy Rappinghoood” (1981) Beat Street (1984) Beastie Boys, License to Ill (1986)
Def Jam Records Rick Rubin Russell Simmons
“Message Music” Grand Master Flash, “The Message” (1982) Ice-T, “Colors” (1987) KRS-1, “Who Protects Us From You?” (1985) Public Enemy, “Night of the Living Baseheads” (1988) Black Nationalism
Backlash Is Rap Music Dangerous? Is it misogynistic? Is it vulgar, obscene, and overly violent?
Why do White Kids Like this Music? Racism Identification