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Female/Male Notes

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  1. Female/Male Notes Swenson

  2. Animal Reproduction = SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

  3. Female Reproductive System a.Female reproductive organ = Ovary Job: egg production and release produce estrogen and progesterone, Location: • Either side of lower abdomen • 1.5 inch oval in size

  4. What is the egg (Ova)? a. female reproductive cell b. 23 chromosomes c. has a food supply d. size of a dot (largest cell in the body)

  5. II. The egg (haploid = 23 chromosomes) a.When are eggs made? • Prior to birth in the female fetus • each ovary has between 200,000 and 1 million eggs present • each contained in a follicle

  6. When are the eggs released? a. First time is at puberty when female makes estrogen to cause eggs to mature b. one follicle ruptures every 28 days c. ovulation is the release of an egg d. ruptured follicle = corpus luteum e. corpus luteum makes progesterone f. ovaries take turns releasing an egg

  7. Does the female actually release all of her 400,000 eggs? a. no – takes too long b. only about 400 eggs get used up • fertile span (12 – 50 years old) (http://biology.clemson.edu/biolab/ovum.html )

  8. Where does the egg go after ovulation? a. leaves ovary and attempts to get into oviduct b. opening of oviduct is about the size of a hyphen c. oviduct is not connected to ovary d. oviduct is 4 inches long with cilia to push egg along e. trip takes 6 – 10 days

  9. a.Trace the path of the egg from ovulation (release) to implantation (pregnancy): i.Captured by fimbrae of oviduct ii.Travel down oviduct, fertilized by sperm iii.Growing ball of cells implanted in uterus wall

  10. How long does an egg live? a. 72 hours after ovulation b. 24 hours in oviduct c. dies after 72 hours and disintegrates because food supply is gone d. if fertilized, pregnancy starts and another food supply is created

  11. Anatomy Ovary – 1.5 inch sphere Oviduct (Fallopian Tube)– Tubes from near ovary into the uterus Uterus – Pear shaped organ, womb Endometrium – inner lining of the uterus Myometrium - layer of muscle

  12. Cervix – opening at the base of the uterus, dilates open during delivery of a baby. Vagina – tube to the outside of the body

  13. Picture female parts

  14. If the egg gets fertilized, where does it go? Uterus – pear shaped and very flexible Are drugs, medication or diet going to affect the final outcome of the egg? No – meiosis is unaffected once it is started However, mitosis is greatly affected so fetal development can be harmed.

  15. What affects the female’s reproductive system? a. pregnancy b. venereal disease c. age d. Stress and emotions e. cancer (27% of female cancers affect reproductive system, 18% breast cancer, 9% uterine cancer)

  16. Secondary Sex Characteristics a.Breast enlarge b.Body contours change c.Genitals develop d.Pubic hair e. armpit hair f. Menarche = 1st menstruation

  17. VIII.Hormones  Estrogen and _Progesterone_ are made in the _Ovary_ Estrogen and Progesterone

  18. vulvovaginitis an inflammation of the vulva and vagina. • ectopicpregnancy, when a fertilized egg, or zygote, doesn't travel into the uterus, but instead grows rapidly in the fallopian tube.

  19. endometriosis when tissue normally found only in the uterus starts to grow outside the uterus — in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other parts of the pelvic cavity. It can cause abnormal bleeding, painful periods, and general pelvic pain

  20. Male Reproductive System Male reproductive organ = Testes Job: Produce sperm, nourish sperm, and produce testosterone Location: a. develop in region near Kidneys in an embryo b. must descend through a canal into scrotum c. Hernia – wall tears d. reason outside of body – 98.6 Degrees too warm for sperm to be made

  21. What is the sperm? • tad pole shape • Able to move around by flagella • no food supply of their own • 23 chromosomes DNA Enzymes Mitochondrial Flagella

  22. 1/500” long • f. 300,000,000/tsp produced in large numbers 10-30 billion daily • Father determines sex X or Y

  23. Sperm (haploid = 23 chromosomes) When are sperm produced? • during meiosis called spermatogenesis • 400 billion in a lifetime How long does sperm live?Between 48 - 72 hours out of the body. (http://www.raysahelian.com/sperm.html) Where would a sperm meet an egg? a. introduced into vagina and then meets egg in oviduct or fallopian tubes b. Only 50 of the 2-300 million get close to the egg How are sperm released (ejaculation)?Through the vas deferens and out the urethra

  24. Anatomy Testis – 1.5 inch oval in the scrotum, produce sperm and sex hormones Seminiferous tubules – Site of spermatogenesis (sperm making) located inside testis Epididymis – store andnurture sperm Vas deferens – long tube where sperm travels to urethra

  25. Prostate –secretes milky alkaline fluid to decrease acidity of vagina and fluid to help with propelling Seminal vesicle – Produces fructose or food for sperm energy Bulbourethral gland (Cowper’s gland) – Secretes mucus-like fluid for lubrication

  26. Urethra – Common tube for sperm and urine Penis – External male organ Prepuce (foreskin) – Often removed Scrotum - suspends testes away from body Sperm production: http://www.howstuffworks.com/adam-200126.htm

  27. Sperm vs. Semen • Sperm are the reproductive cells • Semen consists of the cells, nourishing fluids, and lubricating fluids from Cowper’s, Seminal, and Prostate Glands

  28. What is circumcision? Removal of the foreskin (prepuce) Difference between meiosis and mitosis? Meiosis = gamete Mitosis = growth What effects sperm? Age, diet, drugs, medication

  29. Secondary Sex Characteristics a.Produce sperm b.Lowered voice c.Pubic and armpit hair d.Body contours change e.Genitals develop f.Some research indicates testosterone  hair loss

  30. Hormone - _Testosterone_ made in the __Testes__ Sperm is made from puberty to death

  31. Problems with Male Parts Testicular cancer • Age: most often occurs in men between the ages of 15 and 40. • Undescended testicle: testicles do not descend from the abdomen, where they are located during fetal development, to the scrotum shortly before birth. • Family history: • Race and ethnicity Epididymitis is inflammation of the epididymis Caused by STD or bacterial infection