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CLEANING AND PAINTING OF STRUCTURAL STEEL THE BASICS. FRANK D. REA PCS, NACE. CORROSION. WHAT - gradual destruction of a metal or alloy by chemical or electrochemical reaction. WHY - metals are in an unstable state.

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corrosion
CORROSION

WHAT - gradual destruction of a metal or alloy by chemical or electrochemical reaction.

WHY - metals are in an unstable state.

HOW – electrons travel from a negative area (anode) of the metal to a positive area (cathode) through an external conductive intermediate (electrolyte) and then returns to the anode through the metal itself to complete the corrosion cell.

protective coatings
PROTECTIVE COATINGS
  • BARRIER
  • INHIBITIVE
  • SACRIFICIAL
  • COMBINATION
barrier coatings
BARRIER COATINGS

Protection by preventing water, oxygen and electrolyte from coming in contact with the metal substrate.

inhibitive coatings
INHIBITIVE COATINGS

STOP

Contain chemicals which hinder the corrosion process. They react with the cathode, anode or other components (oxygen, electrolyte, acid).

sacrificial coatings
SACRIFICIAL COATINGS

Provide galvanic protection. They corrode (sacrifice) in preference to the substrate, providing electrons which reverses the corrosion cell and transforms anodes to cathodes.

the ingredients of paint
THE INGREDIENTSOF PAINT
  • VEHICLE
    • RESIN (non-volatile)
    • SOLVENT (volatile)
  • PIGMENT
    • INHIBITIVE
    • SACRIFICIAL
    • OPACITY (HIDING)
  • ADDITIVES
  • A. VISCOSITY
  • B. ANTI-FOAMING
paints are usually described by the resin
PAINTS ARE USUALLY DESCRIBED BY THE RESIN

THE RESIN ESTABLISHES THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE PAINT.

types of paints by resin
TYPES OF PAINTS BY RESIN
  • ACRYLICS (Latex) B, I
  • ALKYDS B, I
  • EPOXIES B, I
    • COAL TAR EPOXIES B
    • EPOXY MASTICS B
  • ZINC RICH
  • A. ORGANIC B, S
  • B. INORGANIC B, S
  • 5. POLYURETHANES B, I, S
inorganic zinc rich ioz
INORGANIC ZINC RICH (IOZ)

Solvent borne self-curing inorganic zinc rich ethyl silicate.

Used as a primer for steel, primarily in the fabrication shop.

ADVANTAGES: Excellent abrasion, heat and severe

Environment resistance. Fast-drying. Can be used without

a topcoat. Applied properly can last more than 20 years.

DISADVANTAGES: Requires a very clean, blasted surface;

user unfriendly; difficult to topcoat (porous); high initial

cost.

alkyds
ALKYDS

Modified drying oil paints which include silicone alkyds, epoxy esters, uralkyds and oleoresinous phenolics. Machinery, touch up, dowel rod assemblies.

ADVANTAGES: User friendly, surface tolerant, expand and contract with substrate.

DISADVANTAGES: Can contain high amounts solvent, slow drying, tack. Only oleoresinous phenolics can be used in severe environments.

epoxies
EPOXIES

Two-component thermosetting materials which cure chemically. Consist of a base and a curing agent (catalyst). FDOT uses polyamide epoxies as the intermediate coat in a three coat Inorganic Zinc system.

ADVANTAGES: Bond well to properly cleaned steel and concrete, very durable in most environments. Excellent barrier coating.

DISADVANTAGES: Pot life limitations, chalk (poor gloss and color retention), inflexible.

epoxy mastics
EPOXY MASTICS

Higher solid version of epoxies with added pigment

and less solvent. Aluminum epoxy mastic used as touch-up

primer, overcoat primer and in some cases a finish coat.

ADVANTAGES: Very surface tolerant, can be applied to

marginally cleaned steel. Compatible with most coatings, low VOCs, durable, good adhesion.

DISADVANTAGES: Pot limitation, overspray, chalk, lack of flexibility, topcoating problems (short recoat window)

coal tar epoxies
COAL TAR EPOXIES

An epoxy which has been fortified with coal tar.

Immersion service, sheet piling.

ADVANTAGES: lower cost, improved water

resistance and greater film build.

DISADVANTAGES: Become brittle in sunlight,

pot life, toxic effects, high solvent content.

polyurethanes
POLYURETHANES

Also a two-component thermosetting coating. Consists of an

isocyanate and a polyol. Aliphatic polyurethane used as finish coat

of three coat inorganic zinc rich system.

ADVANTAGES: Best gloss and color retention, protects

epoxy intermediate coat from UV, hard but flexible.

DISADVANTAGES: Highly toxic (need personal protection),

lose gloss when applied in high humidity, user unfriendly,

pot life limitation, more expensive than an epoxy.

latex acrylics
LATEX ACRYLICS

Emulsion of resin in water used to coat wood, masonry, and steel. Cure by coalescence, leaving a semi-permeable coating which “breathes”. Intermediate and topcoats.

ADVANATAGES: Excellent flexibility, ease of overcoat and repair; and gloss/color retention. User friendly.

DISADVANTAGES: Poor immersion resistance, difficulty bonding to smooth surfaces. Can only be used when ambient temperature is above 50ºF.

surface preparation
SURFACE PREPARATION
  • Pre-Cleaning

(removal of surface contaminants)

  • Cleaning
  • Profiling
surface preparation why is it so important
SURFACE PREPARATIONWhy is it so important?
  • Poor surface preparation is the most frequent cause of premature coatings failure.
  • Surface preparation is the

most expensive operation

of a painting project.

pre cleaning abnormalities
PRE – CLEANINGAbnormalities
  • STEEL
    • Remove sharp edges, weld splatter
  • CONCRETE
    • Patch, Caulk
pre cleaning surface contaminants
PRE – CLEANINGSurface Contaminants
  • Types
    • Loose Rust
    • Loose Paint
    • Salts
    • Dirt and Dust
    • Oil and grease
    • Chalk
    • Efflorescence (cement only)
    • Latence (cement only)
  • Removal Methods
    • Solvents
    • Steam
    • Potable Pressurized Water
cleaning
CLEANING
  • HAND TOOLS (Stainless Steel or Aluminum)
  • POWER TOOLS
  • VACUUM POWER TOOLS
  • ABRASIVE BLASTING
    • SAND
    • RECYCLABLE STEEL SHOT AND GRIT
    • SLAG (Black Beauty)
    • SPONGE
  • WATER BLASTING OR JETTING
  • CHEMICAL STRIPPING
degree of cleaniliness
DEGREE OF CLEANILINESS
  • SSPC SURFACE PREPARATION STANDARDS
    • SP1 Solvent Cleaning
    • SP2 Hand Tool Cleaning
    • SP3 Power Tool Cleaning
    • SP5 “White Metal” Blast (NACE 1)
    • SP6 “Commercial” Blast (NACE 3)
    • SP7 “Brush-Off” Blast (NACE 4)
    • SP10 “Near White” Blast (NACE 2)
    • SP12 High and Ultrahigh (NACE 5)

Pressure Water Jetting

profile anchor pattern
PROFILE(ANCHOR PATTERN)

CORRECT

TOO DEEP

TOO ROUND

profile anchor pattern1
PROFILE(ANCHOR PATTERN)
  • FOUR FACTORS DETERMINE THE SHAPE AND
  • DEPTH OF THE PROFILE OF BLASTED SURFACES
          • Size of the Particle
          • Shape of the Particle
          • Hardness of the Particle
          • Velocity of the Particle
summary
SUMMARY
  • CORROSION
  • TYPE OF COATINGS
  • DIFFERENT PAINTS
  • SURFACE PREPARATION