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Acknowledgments. Brian Ackerman George Bear Sam Blumberg Frank Boxwill Eric Youngstrom Jen Kogos Youngstrom David Schultz Sarah Fine Allison Mostow Christopher Trentacosta Kristen King Fran Haskins Margaret Feerick Jenny Anderson

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Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

Brian Ackerman George Bear

Sam Blumberg Frank BoxwillEric Youngstrom Jen Kogos Youngstrom

David Schultz Sarah Fine

Allison Mostow Christopher Trentacosta

Kristen King Fran Haskins

Margaret Feerick Jenny Anderson

Dante Cicchetti Michael Morrow

100s of UGRAs

600 Children and their Parents and Preschool Teachers (mostly ECAP and Head Start)


Accelerating the development of emotion competence overview
Accelerating the Development of Emotion Competence: Overview

  • The centrality of emotions, emotion knowledge (EK), emotion regulation (ER), and emotion utilization (EU) in development and functioning

  • The development and correlates of EK

  • The Effects of an Emotions Course on children living in poverty: Increased EK, ER, EU, and the self-regulation of negative behavior

  • Explanations of Emotion Course effects


Claims of an Emotion Theory Zealot:

I. Emotions Drive All Personally and Socially

Significant Behavior.

II. Without Emotions, We Would Have No:

- Stable sense of self - Empathy

- Enduring relationships - Altruism

- Conscience - Values

- Morality - Goals

III. We Can Have Them All by Modulating and Utilizing Emotion Motivation


Emotions in Perspective

EMOTIONS

Emotionality/

Temperament/

Personality

Cognition

Action


Early emergence and functionality of emotion expressions
Early Emergence and Functionality of Emotion Expressions

EmotionAge/MoFunction

  • Interest 0 - 1 Exploration/Lrng

  • Joy 2 - 3 Broadens & Builds Resources

  • Sadness 3 - 5 Elicits Empathy

  • Anger 3 - 5 Action vs. Restraints

  • Fear 9 - 11 Protection/safety


Infants emotion competencies by age 3 5 months infants can
Infants’ Emotion Competencies:By Age 3- 5 Months, Infants Can:

1. Encode and decode some basic emotion expressions

2. Protest the loss of animation/expression in mother’s face

3. Discriminate mother’s expressions of sadness and anger

4. Respond differentially to these expressions


Emotion language based competencies age 2 3 years
Emotion/Language-Based Competencies: Age 2-3 Years

1.Limited emotion vocabulary

2. Limited ability to:

  • match a key expression with one in a set of four

  • match an emotion expression and an eliciting stimulus

  • match a pictorial and verbal representation on an emotion

  • produce verbal labels for facial expressions

    [Emotion Matching Task (EMT)]

    Moreover, poverty and its co-factors delays the development of all these processes


Emotion Recognition and Emotion Labeling for French (N=140) and American N (ER) =286; N (EL) =281) children.

Mean Score

Chronological Age

Izard, The face of emotion (1971)


Growth in understanding of situational cues of emotions shame
Growth in Understanding of Situational Cues of Emotions: Shame

Percentage of Items Correct

Fine, Izard, et al. (2003) Development and Psychopathology



Emotion Knowledge, Social Skills, and Peer Acceptance – Achieving Emotion Competence: Middle to late Childhood

Mostow, A. & Izard, C. (Submitted, 4/05)


A Risk Index That Includes EK and Empathy Mediated Achieving Emotion Competence: Middle to late Childhood

the Effect of Trait Emotionality on Aggression

Anger

.38*

Aggression

.76

-.25*

Happiness

.37*

Anger

Emotion

Processing

Risk Index

.94

.06

Aggression

.70

.26*

-.22*

Happiness

-.19*

Schultz, Izard, & Bear (2004) Development and Psychopathology


Emotion knowledge ek predicts social and academic competence
Emotion Knowledge (EK) Predicts Social and Academic Competence:

Head Start EK mediates the effect of verbal ability on first grade academic performance

Emotion

Knowledge

.61 (eq. 1)

.36 (eq. 3)

Verbal

Ability

Academic

Competence

.39 (eq. 2)

.11 (eq. 3)

Izard et al. (2001) Psychological Science


Emotion knowledge social skills and academic competence
Emotion Knowledge, Social Skills, and Academic Competence Competence:

β = .16

Verbal Ability

Academic

Competence

Social

Skills

β = .36

β = .26

Emotion

Knowledge

β = .20

Late Childhood

Middle Childhood

Trentacosta, Mostow, & Izard (2005), SRCD Poster


Theoretical framework for the emotions course emotions
Theoretical Framework for the Emotions Course. Emotions: Competence:

1. Are part of our biology and culture

2. Are part of temperament and personality

3. Serve critical developmental functions

4. Facilitate the development of relationships, empathy, morality

5. Motivate goal-directed cognition and behavior

Effective Regulation of Emotions Enables the Child to Utilize Their Inherent Adaptiveness and Capitalize on the Energy and Motivational Properties of Emotional Arousal.


The teacher implemented emotions course for preschoolers
The Teacher-Implemented Emotions Course For Preschoolers Competence:

1. 20 lessons on interest, joy, sadness, anger, fear, and contempt. Puppet shows, emotion games, emotion story books

2. Increases awareness of the expressions, feeling states, and functions of emotions

3. Encourages children to express modulated emotions and talk about feelings

4. Emphasizes utilization of the inherently adaptive energy and motivation of modulated emotion (No Extrinsic Rewards)


Methods outcome measures administered pre and post ec
Methods: Outcome Measures Competence:(Administered Pre- and Post EC)

  • Emotion Knowledge: 48 item Emotion Matching Task (C)

  • Emotion Regulation Checklist (T)

  • C-TRF Aggressive Behavior (T)

  • C-TRF Anx/Dprsd Behavior (T)

  • Emotion Expression Rating Scale (T)

  • Preschool Competence Q-aire (T)

  • Negative social Interactions (O)

  • Negative Emotion Expression (O)

IQ Control Measure: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (C)


Hypotheses the emotions course
Hypotheses: The Emotions Course Competence:

1. Will increase emotion knowledge and emotion regulation

2. Will decrease symptoms of behavior problems and psychopathology


Research design
Research Design Competence:

  • Quasi-experimental design

  • Randomly assigned Head Start Centers/Classrooms to Treatment (Emotions Course) and Control Groups

  • Treatment = Head Start Curriculum + Emotions Course (N = 107)

  • Control = Head Start Curriculum (N = 63)


Procedure
Procedure Competence:

WeekEvent

1-4 Children Accommodate to HS

5 Tchrs Complete Ratings of Children

6-10 UGRAs Complete Pre-tests

11-31 Tchrs Conduct Emotions Course

32-36 UGRAs and Tchrs Complete Post-tests


Results
Results Competence:

  • Data analysis via Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM):

  • EC

    • Increased:

  • Emotion Knowledge and Emotion Regulation

    • Decreased:

  • Negative Emotion Expressions

  • Anxious/Depressed Behavior

  • Aggressive Behavior

  • Negative Social Interactions


Emotion Regulation Competence:

Emotion Regulation (ERC)

Emotions Course

(EC)

t = -2.61

p < .05

Effect Size r = 0.55


Aggression Competence:

Aggression (C-TRF)

t = -2.61

p < .05

Effect Size r = 0.55

Emotions

Course

(EC)


Negative Emotion Expression Competence:

Negative Emotion Expression

(EERS)

Emotions

Course

EC

t = -1.80†

p < .10

Effect Size r = 0.41


Observations of Negative Peer Interactions Competence:

Observed Negative Peer Interactions

Emotions

Course

(EC)

t = -3.43

p < .01

Effect Size r = 0.65


Anxious/Depressed Competence:Behavior

Anxious/

Depressed

(C-TRF)

Emotions Course

EC

t = -2.88

p < .05

Effect Size r = 0.58


EC Effect on Percentage of Borderline or Clinical C-TRF Scores

pretest χ2 (1, N = 123) = 7.67, p < .01

posttest χ2 (1, N = 102) = 6.79, p < .01


Explaining the effects of the emotions course ec behavioral level
Explaining the Effects of the Emotions Course (EC): Behavioral Level

  • EC enabled children to experience and talk about emotions in a safe learning environment.

  • EC increased emotion knowledge (EK), which increased the capacity for empathy and emotion regulation.

  • The interaction of EK and modulated emotion arousal increased continual emotion awareness, via intersystem (emotion-cognition) connectivity.

  • The increase in awareness of emotions and understanding of their characteristics and functions increased utilization of their inherently adaptive properties.


Explaining EC Effects: Behavioral Level

Developmental Level: EC accelerated the transition from phenomenal emotion experience to language-related emotion that enables:

1.Conscious control and utilization of emotions

2.Growth of executive function

  • Neural Level: EC increased connectivity between:

  • Sub-cortical and cortical emotion systems

  • Insular cortex (and possibly other cortical midline systems that  feelings) and the ACC (that facilitates experiencing feelings as emotion motivation


Conclusion Behavioral Level

  • We think the increased connectivity and emotion competence resulted primarily from increased emotion knowledge and emotion regulation and utilization via:

  • 1. Playful emotion games (child play drives brain development)

    2. Emotion-language development (conscious control of emotions)

    3. Emotion motivated techniques for self regulation

    4. Freedom to express and utilize modulated emotions


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