Origin and Nature of Evil Kant Hegel Kierkegaard Niebuhr Kant -- Hegel -- Kierkegaard Kant tries to secularize the Augustinian/Lutheran conception of original sin.
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1. Evil cannot be subsequent or parallel to the will, since then there would be no explanation of the universality of sin.
2. But, evil cannot precede the will either, since it must either be part of our nature or outside our nature.
1. Original sin is not merely an inherited condition, resulting from a historical fall.
2. All sin is the result of the exercise of human freedom.
3. Human nature is not nullified through sin.
4. Sin is a universal phenomenon.
5. Origin of sin is a mystery: "sin presupposes itself".
1. Sin is a kind of developmental phase -- necessary if we are to reach the higher level.
2. Sin does represent a conflict between individuality and universality, and both are necessary.
1. We are not parts or aspects of God (the Absolute). The contrast between our sinfulness and God's holiness is real, not merely apparent.
2. Philosophical thought of a pantheistic sort offers no viable solution, since it denies our real existence as individuals in space and time.
1. Human existence is a matter of living through time, which involves having a narrative or history to one's life.
2. Therefore, the central challenge of human life is that of "becoming a self" by constructing and maintaining the continuity of the narrative of one's life through time, despite changes.
10. The solution to sin is faith, the acceptance of the paradox.