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STUDY OF SOIL EROSION, SEDIMENTATION AND ASSOCIATED PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION Manzoor Ahmad Choudhry Head Radioisotope Hy

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STUDY OF SOIL EROSION, SEDIMENTATION AND ASSOCIATED PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION Manzoor Ahmad Choudhry Head Radioisotope Hydrology Group Radiation and Isotope Application Division Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology P. O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan Phone: 92 51 9290261

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STUDY OF SOIL EROSION, SEDIMENTATION AND ASSOCIATED PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION

Manzoor Ahmad Choudhry

Head Radioisotope Hydrology Group

Radiation and Isotope Application Division

Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology

P. O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan

Phone: 92 51 9290261

Fax: 92 51-9290275

Email: [email protected]

slide2
Map of Pakistan and Drainage System

Total Population: 130 M (agribusiness 60%)

Total area: 79.61 M.ha.

Cultivated: 23.0 M.ha. (25% rain-fed)

Climate: arid and semiarid

Annual Rainfall: 100 to 2000 mm

(Extreme floods in monsoon)

Temperature: Below freezing to 52oC

 soil erosion is the most severe

problem in rain-fed areas

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AREA AFFECTED BY WATER EROSION
    • PROVINCE
  • DEG. OF EROSIONPUNJAB SINDH NWFPBALO.N.A.PAKISTAN(Thousand Hectares)
  • Slight (Sheet & rill) 61.2 156.3 180.5 398.0
  • Moderate(Sheet & rill) 896.8 853.8 1805.0 25.8 3581.4
  • Severe(Rill, gully &/or 588.1 58.9 1765.1 829.6 504.2 3745.9 streambank)
  • Very severe(gully, 357.9 1517.0 1571.6 3446.5
  • pipe & pinnacle)
  • Total 1904.0 58.9 4292.2 2634.6 2282.1 11171.8
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AREA AFFECTED BY WATER EROSION
    • PROVINCE
  • DEG. OF EROSIONPUNJABSINDHNWFPBALO.PAKISTAN(Thousand Hectares)
  • Slight 2251.4 295.0 13.1 36.0 2595.5
  • Moderate 279.1 70.2 3.8 143.6 496.7
  • Severe to Very 1274.0 273.8 19.6 100.9 1668.3 Severe
  • Total 3804.5 639.0 36.5 280.5 4760.5
slide5
POTHWAR AREA
  • Total Area = 18 .6 M.Acres (Cultivated: 7.9 M.Acre, Livestock Ranges: 9.9 M. Acre and 0.8 million acre is forest)
  • Undulating topography
  • Mostly loess parent material
  • Rainfall: 375 to 1750 mm (Concentrated in monsoon)
  • Rainfall in Study Area: 850 mm
  • Highly susceptible to water erosion
  • Types of erosion: sheet, rill, gully and bank erosion.
  • slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion
  • of cultivated land is most common.
  • Small Dams: 43
  • Mini dams: 550 (10 Acres )
  • Ponds: > 1000 (7.5 Acres)
slide6
GENERAL PROBLEMS

Aggravated productivity decline due to soil erosion

Soil loss (3.0 - 4.5 t/ha/yr from cultivared fields)

 Siltation of conveyance systems and reservoirs

 Environmental pollution(water pollution sue to agrochemicals

slide7
OBJECTIVES
  • General objectives:
  • To develop technical know-how and establish facilities for application of nuclear techniques measuring soil erosion and sedimentation,
  • To promote of these techniques in the end-user departments and to popularize soil and agro-chemical management practices suitable for rain-fed areas among the farmers through extension department.
    • The specific objectives
  • To assess soil erosion and redistribution rates in the fields
  • To investigate soil fertility degradation under differently eroded fields.
  • To evaluate different soil and crop management practices for erosion control
  • To investigate pesticides residue, transport and relationship with soil loss.
  • To promote and popularize the application of nuclear techniques for measuring soil erosion and sedimentation.
partner institutes
Partner Institutes
  • Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology,

Radiation and Isotope Application Division (RIAD),

P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan.

  • National Agricultural Research Center (NARC),

Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC),

Islamabad, Pakistan.

  • Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB),

Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

slide9
FACILITIES
  • Field infrastructure
  • Flumes for measurement of surface runoff
  • Field staff for collection of samples
  • Facilities for 137Cs
  • High Purity Germanium Detection System with complete

gamma library for low level counting (EURISYS

MEASURES, France): Rel. eff. ~ 52%, Res. ~ 2 keV.

  • Two High Purity Germanium Detection System in the

sister division (NPD) (EURISYS MEASURES: Rel. eff. ~

40%, Res. ~ 2 keV. And Canberra)

  • Scraper frame and manual corers.
  • Ring mill
slide10
Sieving set with shaker
  • Mackereth corer for sediment core samples from

reservoirs

  • Special boat with winch for Mackereth corer.
  • Motorized soil corer with all accessories Augers for soil core samples, Ovens, Grinder, Weighing

balances

  • Soil- 6
  • Surveying instrument
  • Facilities for application of environmental isotopes:
  • Three Liquid Scintillation Spectrometers
  • Four Mass Spectrophotometers
  • Sample preparation system for isotopes like 2H, 18O, 13C,

34S, 15N, 3H, 14C etc. (Locally fabricated)

slide11
Facilities for applications of artificial radiotracer:
  • Nuclear research reactors (PARR-I) and radioisotope

production facilities

  • A number of scintillation detectors (up to 3” x3”) / GM

tubes, counting sets, X-Y plotters,

  • MINEKIN sets for radiation detection in the field
  • Facilities for chemical analysis:
  • Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (Hitachi)
  • Flame Photometer
  • Gas Analyzer
  • Microprocessor Ion Selective Electrodes
  • UV/ Visible Spectrophotometer
  • XRD, XRF (sister division, NPD)
  • Facilities for pesticide analysis (available at NIAB)
  • HPLC, GC, ELISA
staff training
STAFF TRAINING
  • Participation in Training Workshops:

(1) One participant in Cs-137 Techniques

(2) One participant in Pesticide Contamination

  • Scientific visits:

(1) Mr. Waheed Akram, two weeks from 27 October to

8 November 2003

(2) Mr. Jamil A. Tariq, two weeks from 23 February to

5 March 2004 (China & Australia)

future inputs from iaea
FUTURE INPUTS FROM IAEA

a. Training fellowship (2 MM)

b. Equipment and consumables

c. Sub-contract:

d. Expert Mission:

field studies
FIELD STUDIES

(a) A test of hypothetical hill-slope-streambed soil

redistribution model using 137Cs technique

(b) Soil redistribution and pesticide

contamination in cultivated fields at Fateh

Jang

(c) Soil erosion from Satameel Catchment-2

(Rawal watershed)

(d)  Soil erosion and sedimentation in Sandaymar

catchment and dam reservoir

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