STUDY OF SOIL EROSION, SEDIMENTATION AND ASSOCIATED PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION Manzoor Ahmad Choudhry Head Radioisotope Hydrology Group Radiation and Isotope Application Division Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology P. O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan Phone: 92 51 9290261 Fax: 92 51-9290275 Email: email@example.com
Map of Pakistan and Drainage System Total Population: 130 M (agribusiness 60%) Total area: 79.61 M.ha. Cultivated: 23.0 M.ha. (25% rain-fed) Climate: arid and semiarid Annual Rainfall: 100 to 2000 mm (Extreme floods in monsoon) Temperature: Below freezing to 52oC soil erosion is the most severe problem in rain-fed areas
AREA AFFECTED BY WATER EROSION • PROVINCE • DEG. OF EROSIONPUNJAB SINDH NWFPBALO.N.A.PAKISTAN(Thousand Hectares) • Slight (Sheet & rill) 61.2 156.3 180.5 398.0 • Moderate(Sheet & rill) 896.8 853.8 1805.0 25.8 3581.4 • Severe(Rill, gully &/or 588.1 58.9 1765.1 829.6 504.2 3745.9 streambank) • Very severe(gully, 357.9 1517.0 1571.6 3446.5 • pipe & pinnacle) • Total 1904.0 58.9 4292.2 2634.6 2282.1 11171.8
AREA AFFECTED BY WATER EROSION • PROVINCE • DEG. OF EROSIONPUNJABSINDHNWFPBALO.PAKISTAN(Thousand Hectares) • Slight 2251.4 295.0 13.1 36.0 2595.5 • Moderate 279.1 70.2 3.8 143.6 496.7 • Severe to Very 1274.0 273.8 19.6 100.9 1668.3 Severe • Total 3804.5 639.0 36.5 280.5 4760.5
POTHWAR AREA • Total Area = 18 .6 M.Acres (Cultivated: 7.9 M.Acre, Livestock Ranges: 9.9 M. Acre and 0.8 million acre is forest) • Undulating topography • Mostly loess parent material • Rainfall: 375 to 1750 mm (Concentrated in monsoon) • Rainfall in Study Area: 850 mm • Highly susceptible to water erosion • Types of erosion: sheet, rill, gully and bank erosion. • slight to moderate sheet and rill erosion • of cultivated land is most common. • Small Dams: 43 • Mini dams: 550 (10 Acres ) • Ponds: > 1000 (7.5 Acres)
GENERAL PROBLEMS Aggravated productivity decline due to soil erosion Soil loss (3.0 - 4.5 t/ha/yr from cultivared fields) Siltation of conveyance systems and reservoirs Environmental pollution(water pollution sue to agrochemicals
OBJECTIVES • General objectives: • To develop technical know-how and establish facilities for application of nuclear techniques measuring soil erosion and sedimentation, • To promote of these techniques in the end-user departments and to popularize soil and agro-chemical management practices suitable for rain-fed areas among the farmers through extension department. • The specific objectives • To assess soil erosion and redistribution rates in the fields • To investigate soil fertility degradation under differently eroded fields. • To evaluate different soil and crop management practices for erosion control • To investigate pesticides residue, transport and relationship with soil loss. • To promote and popularize the application of nuclear techniques for measuring soil erosion and sedimentation.
Partner Institutes • Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Radiation and Isotope Application Division (RIAD), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan. • National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. • Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.
FACILITIES • Field infrastructure • Flumes for measurement of surface runoff • Field staff for collection of samples • Facilities for 137Cs • High Purity Germanium Detection System with complete gamma library for low level counting (EURISYS MEASURES, France): Rel. eff. ~ 52%, Res. ~ 2 keV. • Two High Purity Germanium Detection System in the sister division (NPD) (EURISYS MEASURES: Rel. eff. ~ 40%, Res. ~ 2 keV. And Canberra) • Scraper frame and manual corers. • Ring mill
Sieving set with shaker • Mackereth corer for sediment core samples from reservoirs • Special boat with winch for Mackereth corer. • Motorized soil corer with all accessories Augers for soil core samples, Ovens, Grinder, Weighing balances • Soil- 6 • Surveying instrument • Facilities for application of environmental isotopes: • Three Liquid Scintillation Spectrometers • Four Mass Spectrophotometers • Sample preparation system for isotopes like 2H, 18O, 13C, 34S, 15N, 3H, 14C etc. (Locally fabricated)
Facilities for applications of artificial radiotracer: • Nuclear research reactors (PARR-I) and radioisotope production facilities • A number of scintillation detectors (up to 3” x3”) / GM tubes, counting sets, X-Y plotters, • MINEKIN sets for radiation detection in the field • Facilities for chemical analysis: • Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (Hitachi) • Flame Photometer • Gas Analyzer • Microprocessor Ion Selective Electrodes • UV/ Visible Spectrophotometer • XRD, XRF (sister division, NPD) • Facilities for pesticide analysis (available at NIAB) • HPLC, GC, ELISA
STAFF TRAINING • Participation in Training Workshops: (1) One participant in Cs-137 Techniques (2) One participant in Pesticide Contamination • Scientific visits: (1) Mr. Waheed Akram, two weeks from 27 October to 8 November 2003 (2) Mr. Jamil A. Tariq, two weeks from 23 February to 5 March 2004 (China & Australia)
FUTURE INPUTS FROM IAEA a. Training fellowship (2 MM) b. Equipment and consumables c. Sub-contract: d. Expert Mission:
FIELD STUDIES (a) A test of hypothetical hill-slope-streambed soil redistribution model using 137Cs technique (b) Soil redistribution and pesticide contamination in cultivated fields at Fateh Jang (c) Soil erosion from Satameel Catchment-2 (Rawal watershed) (d) Soil erosion and sedimentation in Sandaymar catchment and dam reservoir