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Food and Health (400:104) Lecture 2 - January 25, 2010

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  1. Food and Health (400:104) Lecture 2 - January 25, 2010 ENERGY AND CALORIES Dr. Ponnusamy

  2. Food and Health DETAILSCourse Website • Lecture Notes • ALL slides on web prior to class • Syllabus/Schedule • General Policies • Other Information and Links

  3. Food and Health DETAILS Communication • Dr. Ponnusamy’s office hours: Thursdays 10 am-12 noon Department of Food Science, Room 419 • Email correspondence with professors: • With EACH email, you need to provide: • First & Last Name • Phone number • Please do not expect IMMEDIATE reply

  4. Food and Health DETAILS Communication Make sure to check your Rutgers email account all the time

  5. Food and Health DETAILSMaterials - Textbook 1. Textbook: Personal Nutrition Boyle and Anderson Cengage Ed. ISBN#0495772534 Comes bundled with Diet Analysis Software (CD-Rom) and course notes • For sale at Cook/Douglass Coop • Three copies on reserve in Chang Library (Foran Hall) This is your required textbook

  6. Food and Health DETAILSMaterials - Textbook 1. Textbook:Personal Nutrition Boyle and Anderson Cengage Ed. ISBN#0495772534 Comes bundled with Diet Analysis Software (CD-Rom) and course notes Also sold at New Jersey Book, Inc 108 Somerset St. This week open late, Mon-Thu 9AM-9PM This is your required textbook

  7. Food and Health DETAILSMaterials - Textbook • Software:DIET ANALYSIS + 9.0 CD-Rom comes bundled with textbook • Windows® or Macintosh® compatible CD-Rom ONLY(ISBN# 0495387657) • On reserve on computer in Chang Library (Foran Hall) – 1 computer This software is required You will need it for your Diet Analysis Project

  8. Energy • How we generate Energy from Food • Energy In and Energy Out • Input = Food and Calories • Output = Metabolism (BMR) and Physical Activity • Balance • Weight Maintenance • Weight Increase • Weight Loss

  9. The Nutrients in Foods • Nutrients: substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance, and repair. • Essential nutrients: nutrients that must be obtained from food because the body cannot make them for itself. • Nonessential nutrients: nutrients that the body needs, but is able to make in sufficient quantities when needed; do not need to be obtained from food.

  10. The Nutrients in Foods • The energy-yielding nutrients: • Carbohydrate • Fat • Protein • Energy: the capacity to do work, such as moving or heating something. • Calorie: the unit used to measure energy • Alcohol is a nonessential nutrient but it does contain calories

  11. -Carbohydrate -Protein -Fat -Vitamins -Minerals -Water YES YES YES NO NO NO Provide Energy? The energy-yielding nutrients

  12. Energy Input Energy: the capacity to do work, such as moving or heating something Calorie: the unit used to measure energy • a kilocalorie is a unit of energy • commonly used to express energy value of food

  13. Definition of calorie(in Physics) calorie: the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius In Nutrition one uses Calorie=kcal (1000 calories)

  14. Calorie Values Calorie value of carbohydrate, fat, and protein… • If you know the number of grams of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in a food, you can calculate the number of calories in it. For example, a deluxe fast-food hamburger contains about 45 grams of carbohydrate, 27 grams of protein, and 39 grams of fat (above). Remember this number…

  15. Percentage of Total Energy Intake The percentage of your total energy intake from carbohydrate, fat, and protein can then be determined by dividing the number of calories from each energy nutrient by the total calories, and then multiplying the result by 100.

  16. Calculating Energy Intake Counting Calories • If you know the approximate composition of the foods you eat (% carb, pro, fat), and can estimate the weight, you can calculate the number of calories • Use the food composition tables • Use a diet analysis program

  17. Calorie Calculation Exercise Premium Crispy Chicken Ranch BLT SandwichServing Size: 8.6 oz (245 g) Medium French Fries Serving Size: 4 oz (114 g) Coca-Cola® Classic (Medium) Serving Size: 21 fl. oz

  18. Calorie Calculation Exercise FAT CARB PRO Sandwich (g) (g) (g) Honey Wheat Roll 3 48 7 Crispy Chicken 9 13 19 Bacon 7 1 7 Ranch Sauce 2 2 0 Leaf Lettuce 0 0 0 Tomato Slice 0 1 0 Medium French Fries 16 47 4 Medium COKE 0 58 0

  19. Calorie Calculation Exercise CALORIES from:FAT CARB PRO Total Sandwich Honey Wheat Roll 27 192 28 247 Crispy Chicken 81 52 76 209 Bacon 63 4 28 95 Ranch Sauce 18 8 0 26 Leaf Lettuce 0 0 0 0 Tomato Slice 0 4 0 4 Medium Fries 144 188 16 348 Medium COKE 0 232 0 232 1161 kcal

  20. Components of Energy Output We Need Energy for: • Basal Metabolism • BMR = Basal Metabolic Rate • Physical Activity • Metabolizing Food

  21. The ABCs of Eating for Health Adequacy getting all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy (calories) in amounts sufficient to maintain health Balance eating foods rich in one nutrient while not crowding out foods that are rich in another nutrient Calorie control control of energy consumption Moderation no unwanted constituent in excess Variety different foods, same purposes, different occasions

  22. The ABCs of Eating for Health Nutrient dense: refers to a food that supplies large amounts of nutrients relative to the number of calories it contains. The higher the level of nutrients and the fewer the number of calories, the more nutrient dense the food

  23. Nutrient Recommendations • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI): a set of reference values for energy and nutrients that can be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. • Established by a committee of nutrition experts selected by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) • Based on latest scientific evidence regarding diet and health • The first set, called the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), was first published in 1941; revised ten times • The series of DRI reports have been published since 1997

  24. 0 The DRI Reports • Calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride, 1997 • Folate, vitamin B12, other B vitamins, and choline, 1998 • Vitamins C and E, selenium, and carotenoids, 2000 • Vitamins A and K and trace minerals, 2002 • Energy, macronutrients, and physical activity, 2002 • Water, potassium, sodium, chloride and sulfate, 2004 • Other food components (for instance, phytochemicals—the nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods like garlic and soy) • Alcohol • DRI tables are located inside the cover of the textbook • Full text reports are available at

  25. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Include: -Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) -RDAs (Recommended Daily Allowances) -Tolerable Upper Limit (UL)

  26. Reference Value Definitions • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) • a daily nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a group • intake at which the risk of inadequacy is 0.5 (50 percent) to an individual • Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) • the average daily intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group • the intake at which the risk of inadequacy is very small—only 0.02 to 0.03 (2 to 3 percent) • Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) • highest level of a daily nutrient that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all healthy individuals

  27. Reference Value Definitions (cont.) • Tolerable upper intake level (UL): it is not intended to be a recommended level of intake. • The need for setting UL is the result of more and more people using large doses of nutrient supplements and the increasing availability of fortified foods. • UL tables are located inside the cover of the textbook.

  28. Setting DRIs Risk of Effects Due to Deficiency Risk of Effects Due to Toxicity Consumed Amount

  29. UL: Upper Limit with no risk of inadequacy or adverse effects Setting DRIs RDA: 2-3% risk of inadequacy EAR: 50% risk of inadequacy Between RDA and UL:Risk of inadequacy and of excess are both close to 0

  30. Setting DRIs Goal for Daily Intake of Individuals

  31. Additional DRI Terms • Estimated energy requirement: (EER): the average calorie intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health. • Acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR): a range of intakes for a particular energy source (carbohydrates, fat, protein) that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. • Adequate intake (AI): the average amount of a nutrient that appears to be adequate for individuals when there is not sufficient scientific research to calculate an RDA. • The AI exceeds the EAR and possibly the RDA.

  32. Why DRIs are improved over RDAs alone • Reduction of risk of chronic disease is included in recommendation, rather than just absence of signs of deficiency • Concepts of probability and risk used for determinations • UL established where data for adverse effects exist • Foods with composition containing ‘nutrient’ with possible health benefit were reviewed and potential reference intakes established

  33. RDAs vs. DRIs

  34. The Correct View of the DRI

  35. Recommended intake rangesfor energy nutrients • Carbs 45 to 65% of total calories • Fats 20 to 35% of total calories • Proteins 10 to 35% of total calories

  36. 650 50 Input & OutputExample 270 210 100 50 Dressing/ Washing 20 min. Sitting in Class 180 min. Walking to Campus 20 min. 25 Eating Breakfast 20 min. Coffee Break 10 min. A day in the life… 250 700 150 395 200 25 75 Lirary/Study 180 min. Walking on Campus 30 min. Walking to-from Campus 30 min. Snack 10 min. Eating Lunch 30 min. Intake: 3,400 kcal 1200 280 65 100 55 At the Gym 40 min. 75 Check email 30 min. Output: 3,005 kcal Walking Home 20 min. Driving to-from Date 30 min. Eating Dinner 30 min. 390 180 400 105 50 IMBALANCE: 395 kcal Hanging out with Date 120 min 260 Dancing 40 min. 490 Undress/Shower 30 min Eating Snack 20 min Emailing/Texting Studying 120 min Sleep 71/2 hours

  37. Calories and Energy Balance – NOT higher order math Calories IN = Calories OUT Maintain Weight Calories IN > Calories OUT GAIN Weight Calories IN < Calories OUT LOSE Weight To maintain a desirable weight, energy intakes should not exceed energy needs.

  38. It’s all about Calorie Balance • If you eat more calories than your body uses, they will be stored as fat • One pound of body fat is equal to 3,500 kcal • In theory, losing one pound requires a deficit of 3,500 Calories Eating 500 fewer Calories per day - or expending 500 more Calories - would result in losing one pound per week

  39. Weight Management • To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended • To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity

  40. Energy Expenditure • Calorie expenditure depends on: • Weight of person • Type of activity • Length of activity • Speed of activity • Metabolic rate From: Ainsworth, BE, et. al. 1993. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 25 (1): 71-80.

  41. REPEAT: Calorie Balance Simple Math No Loss or gain of weight occurs when: Number of Calories Consumed EQUALS Number of Calories Expended 1 POUND = 3500 Calories If you eat 500 calories MORE than you expend, every day for an entire week, you WILL gain 1 pound

  42. How much exercise to offset breakfast? Bagel with Cream Cheese Coffee with Cream Dunkin Donuts Muffin 1 125 pound (45kg woman) = 309 Calories 32 Minutes Running a 10 Minute Mile 2 = 490 Calories 25 Minutes Swimming Laps 25 Minutes Cycling @ 15 mi/hr

  43. How much exercise to cancel out lunch? Turkey Sandwich 12 oz. Soda 1 oz. Potato Chips 125 pound (45kg woman) = 585 Calories 1 9 Miles Walking Briskly @13 min/mile = 366 Calories 2 Slices of Cheese Pizza 2 1 Hour of Downhill Skiing

  44. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 • Adequate nutrients within energy needs • Weight management • Physical activity • Food groups to encourage • Fats • Carbohydrates • Sodium and potassium • Alcoholic beverages • Food safety

  45. The Challenge of Dietary Guidelines • People vary in the amount of a given nutrient they need • The challenge of the DRI is to determine the best amount to recommend for everybody • Lifestyle diseases: conditions that may be aggravated by modern lifestyles that include too little exercise, poor diets, and excessive drinking and smoking. Lifestyle diseases are also referred to as diseases of affluence.

  46. Tools for Diet Planning

  47. 1992 Food Guide Pyramid