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Food and Health (400:104) Lecture 2 - January 25, 2010. ENERGY AND CALORIES Dr. Ponnusamy. Food and Health DETAILS Course Website. Lecture Notes ALL slides on web prior to class Syllabus/Schedule General Policies Other Information and Links.

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food and health details course website
Food and Health DETAILSCourse Website

  • Lecture Notes
    • ALL slides on web prior to class
  • Syllabus/Schedule
  • General Policies
  • Other Information and Links
food and health details communication
Food and Health DETAILS Communication
  • Dr. Ponnusamy’s office hours:


10 am-12 noon

Department of Food Science, Room 419

  • Email correspondence with professors:

    • With EACH email, you need to provide:
      • First & Last Name
      • Phone number
    • Please do not expect IMMEDIATE reply
food and health details communication1
Food and Health DETAILS Communication

Make sure to check your Rutgers email account all the time

food and health details materials textbook
Food and Health DETAILSMaterials - Textbook

1. Textbook: Personal Nutrition

Boyle and Anderson

Cengage Ed.


Comes bundled with Diet Analysis

Software (CD-Rom) and course notes

  • For sale at Cook/Douglass Coop
  • Three copies on reserve in Chang Library (Foran Hall)

This is your required textbook

food and health details materials textbook1
Food and Health DETAILSMaterials - Textbook

1. Textbook:Personal Nutrition

Boyle and Anderson

Cengage Ed.


Comes bundled with Diet Analysis

Software (CD-Rom) and course notes

Also sold at New Jersey Book, Inc

108 Somerset St.

This week open late, Mon-Thu 9AM-9PM

This is your required textbook

food and health details materials textbook2
Food and Health DETAILSMaterials - Textbook
  • Software:DIET ANALYSIS + 9.0

CD-Rom comes bundled with textbook

      • Windows® or Macintosh® compatible

CD-Rom ONLY(ISBN# 0495387657)

    • On reserve on computer in Chang Library (Foran Hall) – 1 computer

This software is required

You will need it for your Diet Analysis Project

  • How we generate Energy from Food
  • Energy In and Energy Out
    • Input = Food and Calories
    • Output = Metabolism (BMR) and Physical Activity
  • Balance
    • Weight Maintenance
    • Weight Increase
    • Weight Loss
the nutrients in foods
The Nutrients in Foods
  • Nutrients: substances obtained from food and used in the body to promote growth, maintenance, and repair.
  • Essential nutrients: nutrients that must be obtained from food because the body cannot make them for itself.
  • Nonessential nutrients: nutrients that the body needs, but is able to make in sufficient quantities when needed; do not need to be obtained from food.
the nutrients in foods1
The Nutrients in Foods
  • The energy-yielding nutrients:
    • Carbohydrate
    • Fat
    • Protein
  • Energy: the capacity to do work, such as moving or heating something.
    • Calorie: the unit used to measure energy
  • Alcohol is a nonessential nutrient but it does contain calories
provide energy












Provide Energy?

The energy-yielding nutrients

energy input
Energy Input

Energy: the capacity to do work, such as moving or heating something

Calorie: the unit used to measure energy

  • a kilocalorie is a unit of energy
  • commonly used to express energy value of food
definition of calorie in physics
Definition of calorie(in Physics)

calorie: the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius

In Nutrition one uses Calorie=kcal (1000 calories)

calorie values
Calorie Values

Calorie value of carbohydrate, fat, and protein…

  • If you know the number of grams of carbohydrate, fat, and protein in a food, you can calculate the number of calories in it. For example, a deluxe fast-food hamburger contains about 45 grams of carbohydrate, 27 grams of protein, and 39 grams of fat (above).

Remember this


percentage of total energy intake
Percentage of Total Energy Intake

The percentage of your total energy intake from carbohydrate, fat, and protein can then be determined by dividing the number of calories from each energy nutrient by the total calories, and then multiplying the result by 100.

calculating energy intake
Calculating Energy Intake

Counting Calories

  • If you know the approximate composition of the foods you eat (% carb, pro, fat), and can estimate the weight, you can calculate the number of calories
  • Use the food composition tables
  • Use a diet analysis program
calorie calculation exercise
Calorie Calculation Exercise

Premium Crispy Chicken Ranch BLT SandwichServing Size: 8.6 oz (245 g)

Medium French Fries

Serving Size: 4 oz (114 g)

Coca-Cola® Classic (Medium)

Serving Size: 21 fl. oz

calorie calculation exercise1
Calorie Calculation Exercise


Sandwich (g) (g) (g)

Honey Wheat Roll 3 48 7

Crispy Chicken 9 13 19

Bacon 7 1 7

Ranch Sauce 2 2 0

Leaf Lettuce 0 0 0

Tomato Slice 0 1 0

Medium French Fries 16 47 4

Medium COKE 0 58 0

calorie calculation exercise2
Calorie Calculation Exercise



Honey Wheat Roll 27 192 28 247

Crispy Chicken 81 52 76 209

Bacon 63 4 28 95

Ranch Sauce 18 8 0 26

Leaf Lettuce 0 0 0 0

Tomato Slice 0 4 0 4

Medium Fries 144 188 16 348

Medium COKE 0 232 0 232

1161 kcal

components of energy output
Components of Energy Output

We Need Energy for:

  • Basal Metabolism
    • BMR = Basal Metabolic Rate
  • Physical Activity
  • Metabolizing Food
the abcs of eating for health
The ABCs of Eating for Health


getting all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy (calories) in amounts sufficient to maintain health


eating foods rich in one nutrient while not crowding out foods that are rich in another nutrient

Calorie control

control of energy consumption


no unwanted constituent in excess


different foods, same purposes, different occasions

the abcs of eating for health1
The ABCs of Eating for Health

Nutrient dense: refers to a food that supplies large amounts of nutrients relative to the number of calories it contains.

The higher the level of nutrients and the fewer the number of calories, the more nutrient dense the food

nutrient recommendations
Nutrient Recommendations
  • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI): a set of reference values for energy and nutrients that can be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people.
    • Established by a committee of nutrition experts selected by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)
    • Based on latest scientific evidence regarding diet and health
    • The first set, called the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), was first published in 1941; revised ten times
    • The series of DRI reports have been published since 1997
the dri reports


The DRI Reports
  • Calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium, and fluoride, 1997
  • Folate, vitamin B12, other B vitamins, and choline, 1998
  • Vitamins C and E, selenium, and carotenoids, 2000
  • Vitamins A and K and trace minerals, 2002
  • Energy, macronutrients, and physical activity, 2002
  • Water, potassium, sodium, chloride and sulfate, 2004
  • Other food components (for instance, phytochemicals—the nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods like garlic and soy)
  • Alcohol
    • DRI tables are located inside the cover of the textbook
    • Full text reports are available at
dietary reference intakes dris
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)


-Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

-RDAs (Recommended Daily Allowances)

-Tolerable Upper Limit (UL)

reference value definitions
Reference Value Definitions
  • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
    • a daily nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a group
    • intake at which the risk of inadequacy is 0.5 (50 percent) to an individual
  • Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
    • the average daily intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97-98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group
    • the intake at which the risk of inadequacy is very small—only 0.02 to 0.03 (2 to 3 percent)
  • Tolerable Upper Limit (UL)
    • highest level of a daily nutrient that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all healthy individuals
reference value definitions cont
Reference Value Definitions (cont.)
  • Tolerable upper intake level (UL): it is not intended to be a recommended level of intake.
    • The need for setting UL is the result of more and more people using large doses of nutrient supplements and the increasing availability of fortified foods.
    • UL tables are located inside the cover of the textbook.
setting dris
Setting DRIs

Risk of

Effects Due to


Risk of

Effects Due to


Consumed Amount

setting dris1


Upper Limit with no

risk of inadequacy

or adverse effects

Setting DRIs


2-3% risk

of inadequacy


50% risk of inadequacy

Between RDA and UL:Risk of inadequacy and of excess are both close to 0

setting dris2
Setting DRIs

Goal for Daily

Intake of Individuals

additional dri terms
Additional DRI Terms
  • Estimated energy requirement: (EER): the average calorie intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health.
  • Acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR): a range of intakes for a particular energy source (carbohydrates, fat, protein) that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients.
  • Adequate intake (AI): the average amount of a nutrient that appears to be adequate for individuals when there is not sufficient scientific research to calculate an RDA.
    • The AI exceeds the EAR and possibly the RDA.
why dris are improved over rdas alone
Why DRIs are improved over RDAs alone
  • Reduction of risk of chronic disease is included in recommendation, rather than just absence of signs of deficiency
  • Concepts of probability and risk used for determinations
  • UL established where data for adverse effects exist
  • Foods with composition containing ‘nutrient’ with possible health benefit were reviewed and potential reference intakes established
recommended intake ranges for energy nutrients
Recommended intake rangesfor energy nutrients
  • Carbs 45 to 65% of total calories
  • Fats 20 to 35% of total calories
  • Proteins 10 to 35% of total calories
input output example



Input & OutputExample







20 min.

Sitting in Class

180 min.

Walking to


20 min.


Eating Breakfast

20 min.

Coffee Break

10 min.

A day in the life…









180 min.

Walking on


30 min.

Walking to-from


30 min.


10 min.

Eating Lunch

30 min.


3,400 kcal






At the Gym

40 min.


Check email

30 min.


3,005 kcal

Walking Home

20 min.

Driving to-from


30 min.

Eating Dinner

30 min.







395 kcal

Hanging out

with Date

120 min



40 min.



30 min

Eating Snack

20 min



120 min

Sleep 71/2


calories and energy balance not higher order math
Calories and Energy Balance – NOT higher order math

Calories IN = Calories OUT Maintain Weight

Calories IN > Calories OUT GAIN Weight

Calories IN < Calories OUT LOSE Weight

To maintain a desirable weight, energy intakes should not exceed energy needs.

it s all about calorie balance
It’s all about Calorie Balance
  • If you eat more calories than your body uses, they will be stored as fat
  • One pound of body fat is equal to 3,500 kcal
    • In theory, losing one pound requires a deficit of 3,500 Calories

Eating 500 fewer Calories per day - or expending 500 more Calories - would result in losing one pound per week

weight management
Weight Management
  • To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended
  • To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity
energy expenditure
Energy Expenditure
  • Calorie expenditure depends on:
    • Weight of person
    • Type of activity
      • Length of activity
      • Speed of activity
      • Metabolic rate

From: Ainsworth, BE, et. al. 1993. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 25 (1): 71-80.

repeat calorie balance
REPEAT: Calorie Balance

Simple Math

No Loss or gain of weight occurs when:

Number of Calories Consumed EQUALS Number of Calories Expended

1 POUND = 3500 Calories

If you eat 500 calories MORE than you expend, every day for an entire week, you WILL gain 1 pound

how much exercise to offset breakfast
How much exercise to offset breakfast?

Bagel with Cream Cheese

Coffee with Cream

Dunkin Donuts Muffin


125 pound (45kg woman)


309 Calories

32 Minutes Running a

10 Minute Mile



490 Calories

25 Minutes Swimming Laps

25 Minutes Cycling @ 15 mi/hr

how much exercise to cancel out lunch
How much exercise to cancel out lunch?

Turkey Sandwich

12 oz. Soda

1 oz. Potato Chips

125 pound (45kg woman)


585 Calories


9 Miles Walking Briskly

@13 min/mile


366 Calories

2 Slices of Cheese Pizza


1 Hour of Downhill Skiing

dietary guidelines for americans 2005
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
  • Adequate nutrients within energy needs
  • Weight management
  • Physical activity
  • Food groups to encourage
  • Fats
  • Carbohydrates
  • Sodium and potassium
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Food safety
the challenge of dietary guidelines
The Challenge of Dietary Guidelines
  • People vary in the amount of a given nutrient they need
  • The challenge of the DRI is to determine the best amount to recommend for everybody
  • Lifestyle diseases: conditions that may be aggravated by modern lifestyles that include too little exercise, poor diets, and excessive drinking and smoking. Lifestyle diseases are also referred to as diseases of affluence.
mypyramid design
MyPyramid Design
  • Make smart choices from every food group
  • Find balance between food and physical activity
  • Focuses on nutrient-rich foods in sensible portion sizes
mypyramid key components

Regular physical activity and reduced sedentary activities


Eat foods from all groups and subgroups


Identifies proportions of foods that should make a healthful diet


Consume less of solid fats and added sugars

Consume more of nutrient-rich foods


One size does not fit all

Customize your plan at

Gradual improvement

Take small steps to improve diet and lifestyle everyday


MyPyramid Key Components
using the power of the pyramid
Using The Power of the Pyramid
  • Step 1: Estimate your daily energy needs
  • Step 2: Build your daily eating plan
  • Step 3: Let the pyramid guide your food choices

Food Label

making better food choices
Making Better Food Choices

Don’t supersize

Think grilled, not fried

Hold the mayo

Avoid all-you-can-eat restaurants

“Just say no.”

690 calories

24 g fat

8 g saturated fat

1,350 calories

43 g fat

13 g saturated fat