Food and Your Health Andrea Hardee Justine Elfrink Jennifer Quinones Catherine Christian Neika Gresham
Calories • Calories or “kilocalories” are simply a unit to measure energy in food that your body burns. • Sources of calories • Carbohydrates: 4 calories per gram • Protein: 4 calories per gram • Fat: 9 calories per gram
Burning Calories • Several factors play a role in the number of calories each person requires to maintain a healthy body weight. • Examples are age, sex, height, body build, and metabolism. • One of the most important factors is the persons daily activity level. • Active individuals need more calories than sedentary ones.
Energy Balance • Think of food as fuel.If you are eating more calories than you are using than the body will store the extra as fat. • Each pound of body fat • equals 3,500 calories.
Body Fat vs. Body Weight • Overweight:Weighting more than 10 percent over the standard weight for height. • Obesity:Excessive body fat, or adipose tissue. • Not all overweight individuals are unhealthy, excess muscle mass may be categorized as overweight. Body composition is a better indicator of fitness and health.
Health Risks of Obesity • Sedentary life style is a leading cause of overeating and weight gain. • Some serious health risks obesity poses are hypertension, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, and some cancers.
Health Risks of Obesity • Poor food habits contribute to obesity. • Excess body fat strains the body frame and taxes the heart and lungs. • Heredity may be a contributor to obesity but the exact relationship is not clear.
Health Risks of Being Under Weight • Underweight:10 percent or more below normal weight. • Less weight means less protective nutrients that the body is storing. • Undernutrition can lead to growth and development problems in young people who are still growing and a less effective immune system.
Starting a Weight Control Plan • Target your weight • Set smart goals • Make a personal plan • Put your goal and plan in writing • Stick to your plan • Think positively • Evaluate your progress, but avoid weighing yourself every day • Recognize that plateaus are normal
Smart Weight-Loss Strategies • Eat more nutrient dense foods • Eat more fruit and vegetables • Eat more fiber • Whole grains, dried fruit, beans, oatmeal, popcorn… • Using alternative sources of protein • Cut down on fat, salt, and sugar • Fat and sugar substitutes, and spices instead of salt…
Smart Weight Gain Strategies • Increase calorie intake, especially complex carbohydrate foods like whole grain bread and pasta. • Eat more frequently • Eat nutrient rich snacks, but space them out, at least two to three hours before meals to avoid spooling your apatite.
Exercise • A healthy diet and regular exercise go hand-in-hand. SAFE weight loss can not be achieved from just one. • Exercise with friends and you will forget you are exercising. Just get up and move! • Regular exercise can burn calories, tones and builds muscle, relives stress, increases metabolism, and increases self-esteem.
Fad Diets • Your “Diet” is what ever you eat. • To loss weight and be healthy, you must follow life-long health eating habits. • If the “Diet” is not something you can see your self following for the rest of your life, it is a “Fad Diet” and will inevitably lead to a rebound back to old eating habits and weight gain. • Examples are “grapefruit diet” and “cabbage soup diet”.
Fad Diet • The bottom line is: if it seems “to-good-to-be-true”, it probably is.
Fad Diet • Something all fad diets have in common is the fact that they drastically limit the food options a person has which reduce the calories consumed, resulting in the weight loss. • So, when the person inevitably goes back to their “pre-diet” eating habits, they regain the weight (and then some)!
Weight Cycling • Repeatedly loosing and regaining weight. Also known as “yo-yo dieting”. • The body has learned to work more economically, using few calories so the excess will be stored as fat in the place of the lean muscle lost during the Fad Diet.
Risky Weight-Loss Strategies • High protein low carbohydrate: • The body is starved of its main source of energy (carbohydrate), and your brain of glucose, which it needs for normal functioning. • These diets are high in cholesterol and saturated fat, which are now established as major culprits in heart attacks and strokes. They are also void of fiber.
Risky Weight-Loss Strategies • Meal Replacements: One or all the meals are replaced with a shake or bar. • This greatly limits the food options a person has, resulting in boredom and depression.
Risky Weight-Loss Strategies • Diet Pills and Supplements:There are thousands of Diet pills on the market that claim to aid weight loss. All of them usually contain some or all of the following drugs: amphetamines like speed, ephedra a herbal version of speed, diuretics and laxatives • These ingredients cause a temporary increase in metabolism, and you go to the bathroom a lot more.
Risky Weight-Loss Strategies • Diet pills containing stimulants will speed up pulse rate, increase blood pressure, and increase heart rate. • Don’t be fooled by a diet pill claiming to be “All Natural”. Herbal diet pills, like Metabolife, containing stimulants, such as ephedrine, or ma huang, that pose the same serious health risks.
Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa:The amount of calories consumed a day is very small (>1200). • Meals are very small • Malnutrition can lead to serious irreversible damage or death.
Eating Disorders • Bulimia Nervosa: Large amounts of food are consumed in a short period of time, followed by induced vomiting and/or laxative use. • This practice can lead to serious and even life-threatening problems, such as heart damage, kidney damage, and injury to all parts of the digestive system.