Behavior Based Safety. Safety Professional’s View. Objectives Today:. Identify differences between traditional vs BBS Know “ when and when not” to implement BBS Explain why most traditional safety programs don’t work!
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Approach# of Studies# of SubjectsReduction %
Behavior Based 7 2,444 59.6%
Ergonomics 3 n/a 51.6%
Engineering Change 4 n/a 29.0%
Problem Solving 1 76 20.0%
Gov’t Action 2 2 18.3%
Mgt. Audits 4 n/a 17.0%
Stress Management 2 1,300 15.0%
Poster Campaign 2 6,100 14.0%
Personnel Selection 26 19,177 3.7%
Near-miss Reports 2 n/a 0%
7 components (continued)
7 components (continued)
A business succeeds or fails through the performance of allof its employees
Success = “Good” performance
Failure = “Bad” performance
Performance = the combined results of a series of behaviors
* Aubrey Daniels, author and behavioral psychologist
ðActivators (what needs to be done)
ðCompetencies (how it needs to be done)
ðConsequences (what happens if it is done)
Behavior can be managed !
Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors
(either reinforce or punish behavior)
Activators: A person, place, thing or event that happens before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.
Activators only set the stage for behavior or performance - they don’t controlit.
Behavior:Any directly measurable thing that a person does, including speaking, acting, and performing physical functions.
Consequences: Events that follow behaviors.
Consequences increase or decrease the probability that the behaviors will occur again in the future.
If you don’t send in that payment we’ll take you to court
Oh please let it be Bob!
("Do this & you'll be rewarded")
("Do this or else you'll be penalized")
("If you do this, you'll be penalized")
("Ignore it and it'll go away")
Magnitude - large or small
Impact - personal or other
Timing - immediate or future
Consistency - certain or uncertain
R+: any consequence that follows a behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future - You get something you want
R- : a consequence that strengthens any behavior that reduces or terminates the consequence - You escape or avoid something you don’t want
One more report like this and you’re outa here!!
The effects of positive reinforcement
P: a procedure in which a punisher (consequence that decreases the frequency of the behavior it follows) is presented - You may get something you don’t want
E: withholding or non-delivery of positive reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior - You don’t get what you want
You bonehead!! You can kiss that bonus for this year good-bye.... and take a few days off without pay!!!
Let him cry honey. If we get up every night when he cries he’ll never learn to go to sleep peacefully.
The effects of punishment
The effects of extinction
If you see this type of performance curve, you can bet management by negative reinforcement is the predominant management style
observe what they do when they have the freedom to choose.
To create conditions that encourage people to collaborate because they want to
not because they have to
Let’s do it!!
“Focus on the process….not results……they will come later!”
“Behavior Based Safety Scores Show Significant Improvement - while injury rate climbs!”
“If you do what you’ve always done, you’ll get what you always got!”
W. Edwards Deming