promoting integrity in the next generation of researchers l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Promoting Integrity in the Next Generation of Researchers PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Promoting Integrity in the Next Generation of Researchers

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Promoting Integrity in the Next Generation of Researchers - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 289 Views
  • Uploaded on

Promoting Integrity in the Next Generation of Researchers. A Curriculum for Responsible Conduct of Research in Occupational Therapy (2005) Funded by the Office of Research Integrity through the American Association of Medical Colleges. Authorship. Objectives.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Promoting Integrity in the Next Generation of Researchers' - Audrey


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
promoting integrity in the next generation of researchers

Promoting Integrity in theNext Generation of Researchers

A Curriculum for Responsible Conduct of Research

in Occupational Therapy (2005)

Funded by the Office of Research Integrity through the

American Association of Medical Colleges

objectives
Objectives
  • Discuss how the history of a work, responsibility for the work, and accurate credit for the work determine assigned authorship, acknowledgment, and author order.
  • Apply authorship principles and rules to case examples.
  • Discuss how professional cultures differ regarding authorship and author order.
  • Feel empowered to discuss authorship issues with involved parties.
dissemination is an obligation
Dissemination is an Obligation
  • Researchers are obliged to share their study methods and findings
  • Participants, funders, and colleagues rely on this commitment
ways to disseminate
Ways to Disseminate
  • Dissemination may be through:
    • Publication in journals, texts, monographs, pamphlets, Internet postings, etc…
    • Oral presentations, workshops, or poster sessions at professional meetings
    • Media such as videos, commercialize devices, or lecture audiovisuals
  • Decide on type and forum of dissemination based on the target audience for findings
authorship6
Authorship
  • Authors are listed to provide a public record of responsibility and credit for the work
  • Only those who can take both responsibility and credit for a work should be authors
authorship policies try to
Authorship Policies Try to
  • Ensure that all those who deserve authorship are listed as authors
  • Ensure that those who do not deserve authorship are not listed as authors
authorship continued
Authorship (continued)
  • To be eligible for authorship, most policies require that a person:
    • Make a major contribution to concept, design, analysis and/or interpretation of the work
    • Participate in drafting the article or revising it critically for important content
    • Have a voice in the final version submitted for publication

(continued next slide)

authorship continued9
Authorship (continued)
  • Accept responsibility as well as credit for the work
  • Be able to present, discuss, interpret, and defend the work, analysis, and conclusions
authorship policy of the american psychological association
Authorship Policyof the American Psychological Association

“Authorship is reserved for persons who make a primary contribution to and hold primary responsibility for the data, concepts, and interpretation of results for a published work” (Huth, 1987). Authorship encompasses not only those who do the actual writing but also those who have made substantial scientific contributions to a study.”

(American Psychological Association, 2001, pg. 6)

authorship policy of international committee of medical journal editors icmje
Authorship Policy of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)
  • “Authorship credit should be based on
    • 1) substantial contributions to conception and

design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;

    • 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
    • 3) final approval of the version to be published.
  • Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3.”

(International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2004)

authorship policy of international committee of medical journal editors icmje continued
Authorship Policy of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)(continued)
  • “Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, alone, does not justify authorship.
  • All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed.”

(International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, 2004)

authorship policy of the american journal of occupational therapy ajot
Authorship Policy of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT)
  • “The statement of authorship responsibility is certification that each author has made substantial contributions to (a) the conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting and revising the article; and (c) approval of the final version. Further, each author takes public responsibility for the work.”

( American Journal of Occupational Therapy, n.d.)

your school s authorship policy here
Your School’s Authorship Policy Here
  • Many universities/colleges have an authorship policy in the institution’s Code of Conduct.
  • Insert with proper citation
your ot departmental or program authorship policy here
Your OT Departmental or Program Authorship Policy here
  • If your Department or Program has an authorship policy
  • Insert with proper citation
  • If it does not have one – you may want to ask faculty or students to develop one
author order
Author Order
  • Professions differ in their conventions for author order
  • Most professions agree that:
      • First author is principal contributor
      • Subsequent authors listed in order of decreasing contribution
author order continued
Author Order (continued)
  • Some Common Exceptions:
    • Alphabetical listing, with designation of a contributing author (i.e., the author to be contacted). A common convention in mathematics.
    • Biomedical researchers often attach special credit to final author (i.e., anchor author).
authorship issues in faculty student collaborations
Authorship Issues in Faculty/Student Collaborations
  • Faculty-student collaborations are unequal
  • Two common ethical problems:
    • Faculty taking unearned authorship or inappropriate author order
    • Faculty granting students unearned authorship or inappropriate author order

(Fine and Kurdek , 1993)

preventing authorship problems
Preventing Authorship Problems
  • Identify and assign study tasks that are key for authorship, and those warranting only acknowledgement.
  • Link authorship to quality and completion of work not to an individual’s role or title.
  • Renegotiate authorship and author order when new tasks emerge, responsibilities alter, or people enter or leave the collaborative group
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Acknowledge
    • People or institutions with minor but respected role in project
    • People who cannot or do not want to be author
  • Acknowledgements should specify contribution, not offer vague thanks for help
  • Many journals now require permission if specific person or institution is named as this could imply endorsement of study
examples of contributions appropriate for acknowledgement
Advice on study design

Editing grant proposal, manuscript

Data collection, subject recruitment, providing animals, contributing samples

Statistical or technical advice

Assistance with data entry or analysis

Photography

Financial support or donation of materials

Clerical assistance

Editorial assistance

Participants

Fabrication of a device

Recruitment or referral of participants

Examples of Contributions Appropriate for Acknowledgement
acknowledgement order
Acknowledgement Order
  • American Psychological Association:
    • List funding sources first, then colleagues who gave editorial or other assistance.

(Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 5th Ed., 2001)

  • American Medical Association
    • No order given for acknowledgements
  • Others:
    • People first (participants, colleagues), money last
resources
Resources
  • American Journal of Occupational Therapy. (n.d.). Author’s guide. Retrieved September 8, 2005, from http://www.aota.org/ajot/authguide.asp.
  • American Medical Association. (1998). American Medical Association manual of style (9th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
  • American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Eastern Michigan University. (n.d.). Publication practices and responsible authorship. Retrieved September 8, 2005, from http://www.rcr.emich.edu/module6/f1_objectives.html
resources continued
Resources (continued)
  • Fine, M. A, & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. AmericanPsychologist, 48, 1141–1147.
  • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. (2004). Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication. Retrieved September 8, 2005, from http://www.icmje.org/#author.
  • Magnus, P. D., & Kalichman, M. (2002, September). Authorship. Retrieved September 8, 2005, from RCR Education Resources, Online Resource for RCR Instructors: http://rcrec.org/r/index.php?module=ContentExpress&func=display&meid=35&ceid=19.