Mainstreaming Students in the Classroom By: Terra Qualls Multicultural Education Dr. Beth Christian November 2, 2007
Mainstreaming • I chose the topic of mainstreaming because this affects all students in a classroom whether they are disabled or non-disabled. There is much controversy over the effects or mainstreaming on both groups of students.
Overview • This presentation deals with the current educational issue of mainstreaming in the classroom. I will address the controversy with the issue, the history of mainstreaming, its different categories, its advantages and disadvantages, and the role of teachers in its success.
Controversy (Disadvantages) • One common complaint, made primarily by parents of excelled students, is that mainstreaming brings down the level of learning of other students. • Another concern is that students with disabilities have social difficulties and will become outcasts. • Some argue that mainstreaming will take up too much of the teacher’s attention. • Others are concerned that disabled students will compare themselves to non-disabled students and feel inadequate or inferior. This could cause more distress for an already low self-esteem. • Many teachers have not had the special education training that would be necessary to prepare them for teaching these special needs children.
Controversy (Advantages) • Supporters of mainstreaming have done research investigations tat prove that disabled children have the desire and self-motivation to learn. • When placed in classrooms with regular achieving students higher expectations are placed on them increasing their desire to excel. • Another advantage is that mainstreaming will teach all children nondiscrimination. • The disabled children can learn to interact in a normal society as well as learning about the attitudes of people in society.
Mainstreaming: Defined • Mainstreaming is an educational method that combines handicapped or disabled students into regular classrooms instead of separating students according to their learning disabilities. • Its purpose is to give every student a typical classroom experience, but as with everything else in life, it has pros and cons.
History of Mainstreaming • In the past, physically and mentally disabled children were often stricken from society and placed in separate institutions. • This ended on Nov. 29, 1975 when President Ford signed the Education for all Handicapped Children Act. This Act required the government to provide ample funding for all handicapped children from age 3 to 21 in order for them to receive a free education. The signing of this act, otherwise known as P.L 94-142 marked the beginning of mainstreaming.
Categories of Mainstreaming • 1st Category: Locational Integration • The disabled students are taught at the same location as the regular students, but in separate units or schools. It permits little contact between students with special needs and regular students.
The Role of Teachers • The role of teachers in the mainstreaming process is essential to the success of the program. Mainstreaming requires two teachers to work together: one from the regular classroom and one from the special education department.
Website # 1 • Explanation of the Mainstreaming Act • http://home.att.net/~ysinger/main.htm#nondisabled • This site described how the Mainstreaming Act developed, the attitudes of disabled and non-disabled children, and how the act has continued to improve. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Website # 2 • Mainstreaming • http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/final.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/00000127.htm • This site is about mainstreaming. It describes the history, categories, pros and cons, and roles of teachers. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Website # 3 • Mainstreaming: Facts and Opinions on the Debate • http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/final.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/00000112.htm • This site talks about the current educational issue of mainstreaming. It discusses the views on advantages and disadvantages. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Website # 4 • Mainstreaming in Classrooms • http://www.nevnet.etzion.k12.il/english/articles/2004/rachel04/default.htm • This site is about the advantages and disadvantages of mainstreaming in the classroom. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Website # 5 • Mainstreaming Special Education Students • http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/final.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/000000f8.htm • This site describes the many benefits for all students in mainstreamed classrooms. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Website # 6 • Mainstreaming • http://www2.gvsu.edu/~haischs/proscons.htm • This site contains a chart listing many of the pros and cons of mainstreaming in the classroom. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Website # 7 • Talking To Kids: Mainstreaming Into Classrooms • http://www.bridges4kids.org/articles/6-05/Mainstream6-28-05.html • This site defines mainstreaming, tells what it is like in a mainstreamed classroom, and tells how mainstreaming affects children. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Printed Resource # 1 • The Exceptional Student in the Regular Classroom • Bill R. Gearheart and Mel W. Weishahn • This book describes educational modifications that can be used for a variety of impairments and disorders. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Printed Source # 2 • Helping Students Succeed in the Regular Classroom • Joseph E. Zins, Michael J. Curtis, Janet L. Graden, and Charlene R. Ponti • This book is about ways to meet students’ special needs in the regular classrooms and how to develop and implement programs to help teachers solve problems in the classroom. • This article would be useful for parents, students, teachers, and administrators.
Conclusion • From my research I have concluded that many children, both disabled and non-disabled, could benefit from mainstreaming in the classroom. However, I do feel that mainstreaming also cause some problems with students not receiving adequate attention from the teachers, and from substitute teaching experience, sometimes the disabled students that are in the regular classroom can cause many distractions and disruptions in the classtimes.
Bibliography "An Explanation of the Mainstreaming Act." 22 Oct. 2007 <http://home.att.net/~ysinger/main.htm#nondisabled>. Caffee, Holly. "Mainstreaming: Facts and Opinions on the Debate." 15 Dec. 1997. University of Delaware. 22 Oct. 2007 <http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/final.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/00000112.htm>. Gearheart, Bill R., and Mel W. Weishahn. The Exceptional Student in the Regular Classroom. 3rd ed. St. Louis: Times Mirror/Mosby College, 1984. Harries, Kim. "Mainstreaming." 19 Dec. 1997. University of Delaware. 22 Oct. 2007 <http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/final.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/00000127.htm>.
Bibliography (Continued) Lieberman, Stephanie. "Mainstreaming Special Education Students." 05 Dec. 1997. Universtiy of Delaware. 22 Oct. 2007 <http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/final.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/000000f8.htm>. Lyness, Phd, D'arcy. "Talking to Kids: Mainstreaming Into Classrooms." Bridges4kids. May 2002. Bridges4kids. 22 Oct. 2007 <http://www.bridges4kids.org/articles/6-05/Mainstream6-28-05.html>. "Mainstreaming." 22 Oct. 2007 <http://www2.gvsu.edu/~haischs/proscons.htm>. "Mainstreaming in Classrooms." 22 Oct. 2007 <http://www.nevnet.etzion.k12.il/english/articles/2004/rachel04/default.htm>. Zins, Joseph E., Michael J. Curtis, Janet L. Graden, and Charlene R. Ponti. Helping Students Succeed in the Regular Classroom. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass, 1988.