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  1. Intelligent Vehicles:A New World Coming….. Presentation to SAE In-Car Electronics and Telematics TOPTEC September 21, 2000 Richard Bishop Richard Bishop Consulting www.ivsource.net

  2. IV’s: This Joint is Jumpin’…. • During/After Crash Technology Evolving • Telematics is exploding • “Information Layer” -- in-vehicle information • Driver Assistance systems entering market • “Control Layer” -- helps driver drive more safely, productively, efficiently • Automated Driving -- ongoing development • Results from significant activity in trucks, buses, special vehicles can flow to the passcar platform

  3. IV Activity Worldwide: The Players • Automotive / truck OEMs and suppliers worldwide • Publicly-funded programs in Asia, Europe, North America

  4. IV Players Worldwide: North America • USDOT Intelligent Vehicle Initiative • Goal: accelerate the deployment of near-term safety systems for cars, heavy trucks, buses, specialty vehicles • Cost-shared projects initiated in 1999 with truck OEMs and state DOTs • Pre-competitive research projects being negotiated with carmakers • Ambitious Safety Goals: example -- 50% reduction in heavy-truck related fatalities within ten years • Federal Transit Administration • Bus Rapid Transit program • USDOD: autonomous military vehicles • University research: California PATH, U. of Minnesota, Ohio State University

  5. IV Players Worldwide: Asia • Japan • Advanced Cruise-Assist Research Association (AHSRA) very active (Ministries of Construction and Transportation) • Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) performing advanced work • Activity also in Korea, Singapore • Industrial automation in Australia

  6. IV Players Worldwide: Europe • Europe • European Commission projects • 5th Framework Research Program • Projects include public and private sector participants from major countries • National level programs in France, Netherlands, Sweden • Research in Italy, Germany, UK

  7. Driver Assistance Systems • Night Vision • Adaptive Cruise Control • Collision Warning • Collision Avoidance • Driver Impairment Monitoring • Advanced Driver Assistance • Cooperative Infrastructure • Automated Driving

  8. Driver Assistance Systems:Night Vision

  9. Driver Assistance Systems: Adaptive Cruise Control • ACC: Foot-free driving • forward-looking radar “sees” slower vehicles ahead • system automatically adjusts speed and maintains a selectable following distance • desired speed is resumed when the way ahead is clear • some systems use digital maps to enhance operations • Now on the market for $1500-2000 • Trucks: US (2000) • Cars: Japan (1997), Europe (1999), US (2000) • Next generation: stop-n-go traffic operation

  10. Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning • Heavy trucks are where the market action is • Over 50,000 heavy trucks equipped with Eaton-Vorad radar-based system • covers forward zone and right blind spot • selling “thousands” per year • accident reductions of 50% or greater not unusual for some fleets • Lane departure warning entered heavy truck market in 1999 • based on image processing • first on Mercedes trucks (Europe), followed by Freightliner (Iteris system) • now a factory option from Kenworth (SafeTRAC) • suitable for automotive aftermarket

  11. Assistware’s Lane Departure Warning System

  12. Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning • Transit Bus Performance Spec’s in Development • Forward Collision Warning: San Mateo (Ca.) transit system with California PATH • Rear Impact CW: Ann Arbor Transit with Veridian • Lane Change / Merge CW: Pittsburgh Transit (100 buses) with Carnegie Mellon • also initial research in Pedestrian Detection / Avoidance

  13. Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive • Adaptive Cruise Control systems are edging in this direction • Ford signed agreement with Iteris for Lane Departure Warning Systems for MY2003 • Japan SmartCruise systems • CW for forward obstacles/vehicles, road/lane departure, intersections, crossing paths, pedestrians, road condition • Systems also take control if driver does not heed warning • Major demo Nov 28 - Dec 1 near Tokyo

  14. Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive • USDOT-Industry Joint Pre-competitive “Enabling Research” agreement in the works • Ford, GM, DaimlerChrysler, Nissan, Toyota & Navtech • Key focus areas: • Enhanced digital maps to augment collision warning systems • Develop driver workload performance metrics • Additional work in test methodologies for CW

  15. Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Avoidance • Activity in forward CA, vehicle dynamics control, lane departure prevention, ACC w/brake actuation • NHTSA-GM: $35M cost-shared project: “ACAS” • using radar, vision for forward sensing • mostly collision warning, with modest braking • extensive algorithm development, vehicle integration, human factors (warnings), data collection, evaluation • naturalistic test with ten Buick LeSabres starts in 2002 • Major benefits in congestion relief • majority of non-recurring congestion due to fender-benders

  16. Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring • Is the Driver Fit to Drive??? • Technology exists to monitor: • driving performance: • lane keeping (SPI), steering wheel movements • physiological factors: • ocular measures: blink rate, blink velocity, % eye closure…. you name it • head position monitoring

  17. Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring • Major government research is focused on trucking • fatigue monitors • Systems are in product development cycle for cars and trucks • On the market: • Trucks: Basic systems now, advanced systems under development • Cars: higher reliability needed; strong market perceived for older drivers

  18. Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring • Technology Approaches: • Ocular measures • Image processing of driver’s face with IR illumination • Active eye-tracking • Doppler radar illumination of face/body • tracks eye movements, head movements, etc. • Head movement monitoring using capacitor plates • Stereo image processing of eyes/face/head • Lane-keeping & steering input patterns

  19. Headtrak:Proximity Array Sensing System

  20. Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring • How do you wake ‘em up??? • Some say “detect fatigue before drowsiness sets in,” giving driver plenty of advance warning • When drowsiness present, haptic feedback (seat vibration) seems most promising

  21. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems • “Co-Pilot” functions will continue to emerge • Stop-n-go ACC for congested traffic (~2003) • Lane keeping on freeways (~2004) • Merge assistance (~2006) • The Killer App: Low Speed Automation! • Automated throttle, brakes, steering in tedious stop-n-go traffic • being developed in Europe, Japan • availability as early as 2005 overseas, 2007 in U.S.??

  22. Cooperative Infrastructure Opens Up New Possibilities • Magnetic lane marking enables snowplow operations in zero visibility (Ca, Az, Mn) • Will car/truck products emerge to use magnet-marked roads? • Magnetic lane marking tape and vehicle system recently commercialized by 3M (Lane Awareness System) • Infrastructure Consortium looking at intersection collision avoidance techniques • Cooperative vehicle-infrastructure standards process in early stages • Arizona considering opening HOV lanes to Intelligent Vehicles, to incentivize public to adopt systems

  23. Lane Awareness System: Sensor Bar on Snowplow

  24. Insurance/Liability Implications:Enhanced DVI • Driver-vehicle interface evolving • voice-activated control, hands-free cellular phone, e-mail “read” to driver • OK, hands are on the wheel -- but where is the driver’s attention? • Eye-tracking technology tracks attention placement • Driver warnings can be tuned to attention placement • OK, attention is on the road -- but where is driver’s brain? Unsolved mystery….

  25. Insurance/Consumer Implications:New Product Opportunities • New insurance products assess premiums in real-time, based on vehicle location & time • Future products: what can be monitored that provides an indication of driver behavior? • Frequency of hard accelerations, hard braking, excess speed, excess lateral acceleration, ….. • Driving while fatigued • Driving with insufficient attention on the road • Safe drivers can choose to be monitored in order to save a few bucks • What should be monitored? Industry, regulators, and consumers will decide

  26. Automated Driving: it’s coming! • Hands-off, feet-off driving: customers want it • Demonstrated in 1997 by National Automated Highway System Consortium • Basic system capability exists • machine intelligence & machine perception now being refined by researchers (California PATH, Ohio State U., France, Germany, Japan, Korea) • must transform into an affordable, trustworthy product • Bishop prediction: available in 2010 • Revolutionary changes in society<>travel

  27. Automated Driving:Passenger Cars (1) • California PATH: work continuing since Demo 97 to refine algorithms, hardware for both cars and heavy trucks • Mechanical Engineering Lab (Japan): • cooperative driving using 5.8 GHz DSRC intervehicle communication, DGPS, machine vision, radar, laser • Public demo announced for Nov. 22-27 near Tokyo • LIVIC: French La Route Automatisee program • research labs INRIA, INRETS, LCPC and OEM partners • focusing on sensor fusion in CARSENSE • scenarios and deployment paths defined for rural, intercity, and commuter scenarios

  28. Automated Driving:Passenger Cars (2) • Korea University: KAV-5 relies on four cameras to follow road, vehicles • University of Parma (Italy): ARGO vision-based autonomous vehicle • successfully completed 2000 km tour of Italian roads • Arizona: conducted a planning study for automated lanes in median of Interstate 10 (Phoenix-Tucson)

  29. Automated Driving: Heavy Trucks • CHAUFFEUR program in Europe demonstrated “electronic tow-bar” in 1999 • Lead truck closely followed by fully automated second truck • Using vehicle-vehicle communication, image processing, active infrared, radar • CHAUFFEUR II implementing multiple trucks in platoons and improved image processing • Led by DaimlerChrysler with Renault VI and Iveco as OEM partners • Caltrans is sponsoring a study of adding automated truck lanes to Interstate 10, coast-to-coast

  30. Automated Driving:Transit Buses • Bus Rapid Transit concept seeks to combine rail-like capacity with flexibility of buses • Exclusive lane operation in urban areas sometimes requires narrow lanes and lateral guidance • Guided bus systems being implemented in France, Netherlands, UK, USA • Toyota: Intelligent Multimodal Transit System • fully automated, using platooning techniques • Technologies include magnetic guidance, image processing

  31. Automated Driving:Demo 2002 • California DOT taking a lead role to stimulate the implementation of automated vehicles -- key to congestion relief • sees trucks / buses as precursor to cars • Caltrans sponsoring Demo 2002 • Trucks in electronic towbar convoys • “Bus trains” • California PATH leading development

  32. Automated Vehicles:Military / Industrial • USDOD sponsoring $50 Demo III project • autonomous unmanned scout vehicles • off-road operation at 20 mph • on-road operation at 40 mph • using extensive sensor suite: MMW radar, foliage penetrating radar, laser scanner, FLIR, monochrome and color vision, stereo vision • Four vehicle undergoing rugged testing “with the troops” in October

  33. Automated Vehicles:Military / Industrial • Port automation: automated freight container movement (Rotterdam) • Autonomous mining vehicles • Australian Centre for Field Robotics • strip mining • underground mining

  34. Summary • There’s a lot going on! …. A diverse array of activity for all vehicle types • Look for increasingly intelligent vehicles to move most rapidly into commercial vehicle markets -- where the intelligence enhances the bottom line • Look for consumers to become increasingly comfortable with driver aids and demand more relief from the tedium of driving ….and look for the technology to deliver.

  35. Resources / Events • ITS World Congress Intelligent Vehicle Exhibition • November 6-9, Turin, Italy • Japan’s Demo 2000 (www.ahsra.or.jp) • November 27 - December 1, Tsukuba City, Japan • ITS America (www.itsa.org) • www.IVsource.net -- Continued updates and reporting

  36. Handouts • “Intelligent Vehicles” for Arizona • Mack Trucks IVI Op Test Fact Sheet • Mack Electronics • SafeTRAC Lane Departure Warning • 3M Lane Awareness System • samples of magnetic tape • Paper: Survey of IV Applications Worldwide • Japan Demo 2000

  37. Thank you.