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Intelligent Vehicles: A New World Coming….. Presentation to SAE In-Car Electronics and Telematics TOPTEC September 21, 2000 Richard Bishop Richard Bishop Consulting www.ivsource.net IV’s: This Joint is Jumpin’…. During/After Crash Technology Evolving Telematics is exploding

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intelligent vehicles a new world coming

Intelligent Vehicles:A New World Coming…..

Presentation to SAE In-Car Electronics and Telematics TOPTEC

September 21, 2000

Richard Bishop

Richard Bishop Consulting

www.ivsource.net

iv s this joint is jumpin
IV’s: This Joint is Jumpin’….
  • During/After Crash Technology Evolving
  • Telematics is exploding
    • “Information Layer” -- in-vehicle information
  • Driver Assistance systems entering market
    • “Control Layer” -- helps driver drive more safely, productively, efficiently
  • Automated Driving -- ongoing development
  • Results from significant activity in trucks, buses, special vehicles can flow to the passcar platform
iv activity worldwide the players
IV Activity Worldwide: The Players
  • Automotive / truck OEMs and suppliers worldwide
  • Publicly-funded programs in Asia, Europe, North America
iv players worldwide north america
IV Players Worldwide: North America
  • USDOT Intelligent Vehicle Initiative
    • Goal: accelerate the deployment of near-term safety systems for cars, heavy trucks, buses, specialty vehicles
    • Cost-shared projects initiated in 1999 with truck OEMs and state DOTs
    • Pre-competitive research projects being negotiated with carmakers
    • Ambitious Safety Goals: example -- 50% reduction in heavy-truck related fatalities within ten years
  • Federal Transit Administration
      • Bus Rapid Transit program
  • USDOD: autonomous military vehicles
  • University research: California PATH, U. of Minnesota, Ohio State University
iv players worldwide asia
IV Players Worldwide: Asia
  • Japan
    • Advanced Cruise-Assist Research Association (AHSRA) very active (Ministries of Construction and Transportation)
    • Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) performing advanced work
  • Activity also in Korea, Singapore
  • Industrial automation in Australia
iv players worldwide europe
IV Players Worldwide: Europe
  • Europe
    • European Commission projects
      • 5th Framework Research Program
      • Projects include public and private sector participants from major countries
    • National level programs in France, Netherlands, Sweden
    • Research in Italy, Germany, UK
driver assistance systems
Driver Assistance Systems
  • Night Vision
  • Adaptive Cruise Control
  • Collision Warning
  • Collision Avoidance
  • Driver Impairment Monitoring
  • Advanced Driver Assistance
  • Cooperative Infrastructure
  • Automated Driving
driver assistance systems adaptive cruise control
Driver Assistance Systems: Adaptive Cruise Control
  • ACC: Foot-free driving
    • forward-looking radar “sees” slower vehicles ahead
    • system automatically adjusts speed and maintains a selectable following distance
    • desired speed is resumed when the way ahead is clear
    • some systems use digital maps to enhance operations
  • Now on the market for $1500-2000
    • Trucks: US (2000)
    • Cars: Japan (1997), Europe (1999), US (2000)
  • Next generation: stop-n-go traffic operation
driver assistance systems collision warning
Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning
  • Heavy trucks are where the market action is
  • Over 50,000 heavy trucks equipped with Eaton-Vorad radar-based system
    • covers forward zone and right blind spot
    • selling “thousands” per year
    • accident reductions of 50% or greater not unusual for some fleets
  • Lane departure warning entered heavy truck market in 1999
    • based on image processing
    • first on Mercedes trucks (Europe), followed by Freightliner (Iteris system)
    • now a factory option from Kenworth (SafeTRAC)
    • suitable for automotive aftermarket
driver assistance systems collision warning13
Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning
  • Transit Bus Performance Spec’s in Development
    • Forward Collision Warning: San Mateo (Ca.) transit system with California PATH
    • Rear Impact CW: Ann Arbor Transit with Veridian
    • Lane Change / Merge CW: Pittsburgh Transit (100 buses) with Carnegie Mellon
      • also initial research in Pedestrian Detection / Avoidance
driver assistance systems collision warning for automotive
Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive
  • Adaptive Cruise Control systems are edging in this direction
  • Ford signed agreement with Iteris for Lane Departure Warning Systems for MY2003
  • Japan SmartCruise systems
    • CW for forward obstacles/vehicles, road/lane departure, intersections, crossing paths, pedestrians, road condition
    • Systems also take control if driver does not heed warning
    • Major demo Nov 28 - Dec 1 near Tokyo
driver assistance systems collision warning for automotive15
Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive
  • USDOT-Industry Joint Pre-competitive “Enabling Research” agreement in the works
  • Ford, GM, DaimlerChrysler, Nissan, Toyota & Navtech
  • Key focus areas:
    • Enhanced digital maps to augment collision warning systems
    • Develop driver workload performance metrics
    • Additional work in test methodologies for CW
driver assistance systems collision avoidance
Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Avoidance
  • Activity in forward CA, vehicle dynamics control, lane departure prevention, ACC w/brake actuation
  • NHTSA-GM: $35M cost-shared project: “ACAS”
    • using radar, vision for forward sensing
    • mostly collision warning, with modest braking
    • extensive algorithm development, vehicle integration, human factors (warnings), data collection, evaluation
    • naturalistic test with ten Buick LeSabres starts in 2002
  • Major benefits in congestion relief
    • majority of non-recurring congestion due to fender-benders
driver assistance systems impairment monitoring
Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring
  • Is the Driver Fit to Drive???
  • Technology exists to monitor:
    • driving performance:
      • lane keeping (SPI), steering wheel movements
    • physiological factors:
      • ocular measures: blink rate, blink velocity, % eye closure…. you name it
      • head position monitoring
driver assistance systems impairment monitoring18
Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring
  • Major government research is focused on trucking
    • fatigue monitors
  • Systems are in product development cycle for cars and trucks
  • On the market:
    • Trucks: Basic systems now, advanced systems under development
    • Cars: higher reliability needed; strong market perceived for older drivers
driver assistance systems impairment monitoring19
Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring
  • Technology Approaches:
    • Ocular measures
      • Image processing of driver’s face with IR illumination
      • Active eye-tracking
    • Doppler radar illumination of face/body
      • tracks eye movements, head movements, etc.
    • Head movement monitoring using capacitor plates
    • Stereo image processing of eyes/face/head
    • Lane-keeping & steering input patterns
driver assistance systems impairment monitoring21
Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring
  • How do you wake ‘em up???
  • Some say “detect fatigue before drowsiness sets in,” giving driver plenty of advance warning
  • When drowsiness present, haptic feedback (seat vibration) seems most promising
advanced driver assistance systems
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems
  • “Co-Pilot” functions will continue to emerge
    • Stop-n-go ACC for congested traffic (~2003)
    • Lane keeping on freeways (~2004)
    • Merge assistance (~2006)
  • The Killer App: Low Speed Automation!
    • Automated throttle, brakes, steering in tedious stop-n-go traffic
    • being developed in Europe, Japan
    • availability as early as 2005 overseas, 2007 in U.S.??
cooperative infrastructure opens up new possibilities
Cooperative Infrastructure Opens Up New Possibilities
  • Magnetic lane marking enables snowplow operations in zero visibility (Ca, Az, Mn)
    • Will car/truck products emerge to use magnet-marked roads?
  • Magnetic lane marking tape and vehicle system recently commercialized by 3M (Lane Awareness System)
  • Infrastructure Consortium looking at intersection collision avoidance techniques
  • Cooperative vehicle-infrastructure standards process in early stages
  • Arizona considering opening HOV lanes to Intelligent Vehicles, to incentivize public to adopt systems
insurance liability implications enhanced dvi
Insurance/Liability Implications:Enhanced DVI
  • Driver-vehicle interface evolving
    • voice-activated control, hands-free cellular phone, e-mail “read” to driver
  • OK, hands are on the wheel -- but where is the driver’s attention?
    • Eye-tracking technology tracks attention placement
    • Driver warnings can be tuned to attention placement
  • OK, attention is on the road -- but where is driver’s brain? Unsolved mystery….
insurance consumer implications new product opportunities
Insurance/Consumer Implications:New Product Opportunities
  • New insurance products assess premiums in real-time, based on vehicle location & time
  • Future products: what can be monitored that provides an indication of driver behavior?
    • Frequency of hard accelerations, hard braking, excess speed, excess lateral acceleration, …..
    • Driving while fatigued
    • Driving with insufficient attention on the road
  • Safe drivers can choose to be monitored in order to save a few bucks
  • What should be monitored? Industry, regulators, and consumers will decide
automated driving it s coming
Automated Driving: it’s coming!
  • Hands-off, feet-off driving: customers want it
  • Demonstrated in 1997 by National Automated Highway System Consortium
  • Basic system capability exists
    • machine intelligence & machine perception now being refined by researchers (California PATH, Ohio State U., France, Germany, Japan, Korea)
    • must transform into an affordable, trustworthy product
  • Bishop prediction: available in 2010
  • Revolutionary changes in society<>travel
automated driving passenger cars 1
Automated Driving:Passenger Cars (1)
  • California PATH: work continuing since Demo 97 to refine algorithms, hardware for both cars and heavy trucks
  • Mechanical Engineering Lab (Japan):
    • cooperative driving using 5.8 GHz DSRC intervehicle communication, DGPS, machine vision, radar, laser
    • Public demo announced for Nov. 22-27 near Tokyo
  • LIVIC: French La Route Automatisee program
    • research labs INRIA, INRETS, LCPC and OEM partners
    • focusing on sensor fusion in CARSENSE
    • scenarios and deployment paths defined for rural, intercity, and commuter scenarios
automated driving passenger cars 2
Automated Driving:Passenger Cars (2)
  • Korea University: KAV-5 relies on four cameras to follow road, vehicles
  • University of Parma (Italy): ARGO vision-based autonomous vehicle
    • successfully completed 2000 km tour of Italian roads
  • Arizona: conducted a planning study for automated lanes in median of Interstate 10 (Phoenix-Tucson)
automated driving heavy trucks
Automated Driving: Heavy Trucks
  • CHAUFFEUR program in Europe demonstrated “electronic tow-bar” in 1999
    • Lead truck closely followed by fully automated second truck
    • Using vehicle-vehicle communication, image processing, active infrared, radar
  • CHAUFFEUR II implementing multiple trucks in platoons and improved image processing
    • Led by DaimlerChrysler with Renault VI and Iveco as OEM partners
  • Caltrans is sponsoring a study of adding automated truck lanes to Interstate 10, coast-to-coast
automated driving transit buses
Automated Driving:Transit Buses
  • Bus Rapid Transit concept seeks to combine rail-like capacity with flexibility of buses
  • Exclusive lane operation in urban areas sometimes requires narrow lanes and lateral guidance
  • Guided bus systems being implemented in France, Netherlands, UK, USA
  • Toyota: Intelligent Multimodal Transit System
    • fully automated, using platooning techniques
  • Technologies include magnetic guidance, image processing
automated driving demo 2002
Automated Driving:Demo 2002
  • California DOT taking a lead role to stimulate the implementation of automated vehicles -- key to congestion relief
    • sees trucks / buses as precursor to cars
  • Caltrans sponsoring Demo 2002
    • Trucks in electronic towbar convoys
    • “Bus trains”
  • California PATH leading development
automated vehicles military industrial
Automated Vehicles:Military / Industrial
  • USDOD sponsoring $50 Demo III project
    • autonomous unmanned scout vehicles
    • off-road operation at 20 mph
    • on-road operation at 40 mph
    • using extensive sensor suite: MMW radar, foliage penetrating radar, laser scanner, FLIR, monochrome and color vision, stereo vision
  • Four vehicle undergoing rugged testing “with the troops” in October
automated vehicles military industrial35
Automated Vehicles:Military / Industrial
  • Port automation: automated freight container movement (Rotterdam)
  • Autonomous mining vehicles
    • Australian Centre for Field Robotics
    • strip mining
    • underground mining
summary
Summary
  • There’s a lot going on! …. A diverse array of activity for all vehicle types
  • Look for increasingly intelligent vehicles to move most rapidly into commercial vehicle markets -- where the intelligence enhances the bottom line
  • Look for consumers to become increasingly comfortable with driver aids and demand more relief from the tedium of driving ….and look for the technology to deliver.
resources events
Resources / Events
  • ITS World Congress Intelligent Vehicle Exhibition
    • November 6-9, Turin, Italy
  • Japan’s Demo 2000 (www.ahsra.or.jp)
    • November 27 - December 1, Tsukuba City, Japan
  • ITS America (www.itsa.org)
  • www.IVsource.net -- Continued updates and reporting
handouts
Handouts
  • “Intelligent Vehicles” for Arizona
  • Mack Trucks IVI Op Test Fact Sheet
  • Mack Electronics
  • SafeTRAC Lane Departure Warning
  • 3M Lane Awareness System
    • samples of magnetic tape
  • Paper: Survey of IV Applications Worldwide
  • Japan Demo 2000