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History 230-M. News of the South. Mexican Revolution. The 1 st major social revolution of the century Began because politicians could not agree who should rule when Diaz died. Creelman interview in Pearson’s Magazine Would retire when term ended Welcomed opposition party

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Mexican revolution l.jpg
Mexican Revolution

  • The 1st major social revolution of the century

  • Began because politicians could not agree who should rule when Diaz died.

  • Creelman interview in Pearson’s Magazine

    • Would retire when term ended

    • Welcomed opposition party

  • He was old and tired

  • State elections start showing opposition groups

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  • Francisco I. Madero

  • Part of the establishment

  • Father owned cotton plantation

  • Election of 1910

    • Jailed 5000

    • “Plan de San Luis Potosi

      • Called for revolution to begin November 20, 1910

      • Moral enforcements of land laws

      • Declared himself President

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Roots of Revolution

  • Diaz era one of unprecedented economic growth

  • Growth of a middle class out of power

  • Industrialization that promoted growth of working class

  • Land problems festered and go worse

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Ricardo Flores Magon

  • Born Oaxaca Sept. 16, 1874

  • Died Fort Leavenworth KS, November 21, 1922

  • Founded with brother Enrique, Regeneración, 1900

  • Influenced by Peter Kropotkin’s The Conquest of Bread

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  • Praxides Guerrero – 1882 – 1910

    • Member of Partido Liberal Mexicano – 1907

    • Worked with Magon

  • PLM was active prior to Madero and much more radical

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  • Founded in St. Louis 1907

  • Land reform – first start hearing “Tierra y Libertad”

  • Rights for the working class

  • Participation of women – Daughters of Cuahtemoc (Flores de Andrade)

  • Never strong politically but radicalizing influence

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Influential in the burgeoning labor movement

Casa del Obrero Mundial – House of the World Worker

Part of a world movement to gain workers’ rights – IWW in the US

Eliminate 7 day work week

8 hour day

Working Class

Tienda de Raya – company store

25 – 75 centavos/day

Major strikes 1906-1908 brutally crushed

Cananea (Sonora)

Rio Blanco (Vera Cruz)

The Anarchists

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Liberty and political reform

References land reform

Some social change

Quickly lost control


Pancho Villa

Tough guy


Meets Madero and confesses to life of crime


Emiliano Zapata

“Land and Liberty”

True guerilla warfare

Attracted to Madero’s land reform statements

Revolution Begins

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  • Stableman/horse trainer

  • Sought justice for the campesino

  • Restore ejido lands taken under the Ley Lerdo

  • “Land and Liberty”

    • Theme of Flores Magon

    • Anarchists from Casa del Obrero Mundial

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The Zapatistas

  • Who were they?

  • Many photos from:

    • http://www.rose-hulman.edu/~delacova/mex-revolution.htm

    • http://personal.redestb.es/fatela/Izquierda.htm

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Plan of Ayala

  • November 1911- Otilio Montaño

  • Breaks with Madero

  • Sets out Zapata’s plan for redistributing the lands taken from the rural people

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The Revolution 1910

  • Diaz government run by senile old men

  • Fighting breaks out all over Mexico

    • Villa appointed Captain – raises forces

    • Zapata is already redistributing land and writes Madero for permission to revolt in his name

    • Magonistas invade Baja California

  • Most success coming in North

  • Border merchants sold arms to Madero and Villa

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The Revolution

  • The hour had come for Diaz

    • Defeated in 6 months

    • Crucial battle at Ciudad Juarez

      • Pascual Orozco

      • Pancho Villa

    • May 25, 1911 he resigns

    • Limantour brokers the deal

    • Takes Ypiranga (German boat) from Vera Cruz

    • Dies in Paris 4 years later.

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  • Little prepared to keep all the bands together.

  • Thought he could move slowly

  • Named Victoriano Huerta military chief of staff to put down Porfirista revolts

  • Huerta murders Madero, his brother, and the Vice-President

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Victoriano Huerta

  • Assisted by Henry Lane Wilson

  • Huerta was alcoholic

  • Betrayed fellow conspirators

  • Lost US backing with election of Woodrow Wilson

  • Fighting which had hardly stopped broke out in earnest

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Venustiano Carranza

  • Governor of Coahuila

  • Had supported Diaz and switched

  • Had advantage of a great general in Álvaro Obregón

  • Uneasy alliance with Villa and Zapata

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Revolutionary Convention

  • With the fall of Huerta the three main factions meet to establish a new government and enact reforms.

  • Constitutional Convention at Aguascalientes

  • Carranza hoped to control to assure his presidency

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The Revolution Continues

  • Carranza resumed presidency in 1915

  • Villa retreats to the north and Zapata remains in his base in Morelos

  • Villa provokes the US and Pershing to bring them into the fray

  • Some stability led to a constitutional convention

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Constitution of 1917

  • Replaced the Constitution of 1857

  • Beacon to rest of Latin America

    • Property could be reclaimed by the state

    • Ejidos should be restored

    • Right to unionize

    • No debt peonage

    • Church could own nothing

    • Grand social changes

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Mexican Anarchists

Juan Sarabia

Enrique Magón

Antonio Villareal

Antonio Diaz Soto y Gama