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FOREIGN WORDS IN ENGLISH. by Don L. F. Nilsen (based on Marckwardt and Dillard’s American English NY: Oxford Univ Press, 1980). SPAIN, FRANCE, ITALY AND PORTUGAL (Parra Guinaldo 4). INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. Indo-Iranian: Bengali, Farsi, Hindi, Kurdish, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu Slavic:

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foreign words in english

FOREIGN WORDS IN ENGLISH

by Don L. F. Nilsen

(based on Marckwardt and Dillard’s American English NY: Oxford Univ Press, 1980)

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indo european languages
INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
  • Indo-Iranian:
    • Bengali, Farsi, Hindi, Kurdish, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu
  • Slavic:
    • Bulgarian, Czech, Macedonian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Slovenian, Ukranian
  • Baltic:
    • Latvian, Lithuanian
  • Celtic:
    • Breton, Irish, Scots Gaelic, Welsh
  • Romance:
    • Catalan, French, Italian, Portuguese, Provençal, Spanish, Romanian
  • Germanic:
    • Africans, Danish, Dutch, English, Frisian, German, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Yiddish
    • (Fromkin, Rodman and Hyams 529)

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african words
AFRICAN WORDS
  • goober
  • gumbo
  • hepcat
  • jazz
  • voodoo

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native american words
NATIVE AMERICAN WORDS
  • Chicago (Algonquian: Onion Field)
  • mackinaw (Algonquian milikamakinak big turtle in water)
  • mugwump (American: fence straddler)
  • racoon (Algonquian: rufkufskoom
  • squash (Algonquian askutaskuash)
  • wampum (Algonquian: money)
  • woodchuck (Algonquian: ortchuk; NOTE: folk etymology)

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chinese words
CHINESE WORDS
  • Chi (qi)
  • chow mein
  • chop suey
  • Dao (tao)
  • Goji (berry)
  • I ching
  • Kowtow
  • Kung fu
  • Tofu
  • Typhoon
  • no can do.
  • Long time no see. (pidgin English from early Chinese workers on the railroad)
  • (Jean Arnold from Xi’an, China, gave me most of these)

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dutch words
DUTCH WORDS
  • cole slaw (Dutch: cabbage salad)
  • Pennsylvania Dutch (Greek sylvan, German: Deutsch)
  • poppycock (Dutch: soft dung)
  • Yankee (Dutch: Jan [John] kees [cheesel]

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english words that have changed 1
ENGLISH WORDS THAT HAVE CHANGED 1
  • Azusa (American A-Z in the USA)
  • bootlegger (American liquor smuggler)
  • cold shoulder (English: unwarmed meal)
  • gerrymander (English: Eldridge Gerry + Salamander)
  • lumber (English: trash)
  • saw buck (Latin: Roman Numeral X)
  • slapstick (English: stick for making noise)

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english words that have changed 2
ENGLISH WORDS THAT HAVE CHANGED 2
  • soap opera (English: "opera" sponsored by soaps)
  • stereotype (English: type cast in lead for printing press)
  • walrus (English: whale + ros [horse])
  • wetback (English: swimmer of Rio Grande)
  • zounds (English: God's wounds)

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french words 1
FRENCH WORDS 1
  • castle/chateau (French)
  • depot (French, cf. deposit)
  • dime (French: dixieme)
  • gopher (French: gauphre: honeycomb)
  • hotel/hostel (French)
  • levee (French: elevated)

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french words 2
FRENCH WORDS 2
  • parlay (French: to talk)
  • porter (French: to carry)
  • porpoise (French: porc + poisson)
  • puny (French: puis + ne)
  • saloon (French: salon)
  • voyageur (French)

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german words
GERMAN WORDS
  • blitzkrieg (German: lightning war)
  • delicatessen (German)
  • festschrift (German: festival of writing)
  • frankfurter (German: something from Frankfurt)
  • hamburger (German: something from Hamburgh)
  • kindergarten (German)
  • wiener/wienie/Viener Schnitzel/Vienna Sausage (German: something from Wien Vienna)

25

greek words
GREEK WORDS
  • janitor (Greek: Janus)
  • Pennsylvania Dutch (Greek sylvan, German: Deutsch)
  • Philadelphia (Greek: love + brother)

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hawaiian words
HAWAIIAN WORDS
  • hula
  • wahine
  • lei
  • aloha
  • poi
    • two-finger poi is thick
    • five-finger poi is thin

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italian words
ITALIAN WORDS
  • accelerando
  • andante
  • fortissimo
  • linguini, vermicelli, tortelini
  • pizza
  • presto
  • zany (Italian: servants)

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spanish past participles
SPANISH PAST PARTICIPLES
  • coronado (Spanish: crowned)
  • desparado (Spanish: disapeared)
  • enchilada (Spanish: enchiliated)
  • hoosegow (Spanish: juzgado judged)
  • incommunicado (Spanish)
  • pinto (Spanish pintado)
  • Sierra Nevada (Spanish: saw + snowed)
  • tornado (Spanish)
  • tostado (Spanish)
  • Spanish present participle
  • hacienda (Spanish: doing/making)

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spanish diminutives and augmentatives
SPANISH DIMINUTIVES AND AUGMENTATIVES!
  • armadillo (Spanish: little armored thing)
  • mosquita (Spanish: small fly)
  • tortilla (Spanish)
  • machismo/macho (Spanish) (cf. Italian “pianissimo,” “fortissimo” and “Generalissimo”

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other spanish words
OTHER SPANISH WORDS!!
  • buckaroo (Spanish Vaquero)
  • cafeteria (Arabic or Spanish)
  • Chicano (Spanish: Mexicano)
  • cockroach (Spanish)
  • marijuana (Spanish)
  • sombrero (Spanish: "sombra" shade hat)
  • ten gallon hat (Spanish galeon an ornament)

25

yiddish other languages
YIDDISH & OTHER LANGUAGES
  • Yiddish is influenced by Aramaic, Hebrew, Latin, French, Italian, Polish, Ukrainian, White Russian, Slavic, but it is 75 % German (Weinstein 20).

25

yiddish hebrew
YIDDISH & HEBREW
  • Hebrew accounts for 15 % to 20 % of Yiddish, but despite the shared alphabet, common words, and right-to-left transcription, Yiddish and Hebrew are quite different (Rosten 428).
  • Hebrew conveys abstract teachings, while Yiddish brings them down to earth” (Rosten 165).

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kvetching
KVETCHING
  • “Eskimos have a lot of words for different kinds of snow, and by God they need them. Jews, on the other hand, have an abundance of words to describe the many forms of human foolishness” (Wex 15).
  • “If we stop kvetching, how will we know that life isn’t supposed to be like this? If we don’t keep kvetching we’ll forget who we really are. Kvetching lets us remember that we’ve got nowhere to go because we’re so special” (Wex 6).

25

yiddish brokhe klole and kvetch blessing cursing and complaining
YIDDISH: BROKHE, KLOLE, and KVETCH(BLESSING, CURSING and COMPLAINING)
  • Yiddish contains “mordant syntax,” “sarcasm via innocuous diction,” “scorn through reversed word order,” “contempt via affirmation,” “fearful curses sanctioned by nominal cancellation,” and “derisive dismissal disguised as innocent interrogation” (Rosten xv).

25

yiddish brokhe klole and kvetch blessing cursing and complaining1
!YIDDISH: BROKHE, KLOLE, and KVETCH(BLESSING, CURSING and COMPLAINING)
  • “The use of a question to answer a question to which the answer is so self-evident that the use of the first question (by you) constitutes an affront (to me) best erased either by a) repeating the original question, or b) retorting with a question of comparably asanine self-answeringness” (Rosten xv).

25

here are some examples from yiddish with dick and jane
!!Here are some examples from Yiddish with Dick and Jane
  • fancy-schmancy
  • kvell
  • maven
  • mazel tov
  • shnorrer
  • tanz
  • Oy Vey!
  • (Weiner and Davilman)

25

powerpoint
!!!PowerPoint:

Yiddish with Dick and Jane:

http://www.vidlit.com/yidlit/

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slide27
References # 1:

Bledsoe, Hedra. “Yiddish: The Linguistic Garden of Earthly Delights.” Tempe, AZ: LIN 515 Paper, April 11, 2006.

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. In Introduction to Language, 7th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson/Heinle, 2003.

Hendrickson, Robert. World English: From Aloha to Zed. New York, NY: John Wiley, 2001.

Mey, Jacob. Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.

Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen "Vocabulary Development: Teaching vs. Testing." Readings in Reading Instruction: Its History, Theory, and Development. Ed. Richard D. Robinson. New York, NY: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2005, 196-203.

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slide28
References # 2:

Parra Guinaldo, Victor. The Development of the Latin Initial F- in Old Spanish. PowerPoint Presentation. Tempe, AZ: A.S.U., April, 2006.

Rosten, Leo. The New Joys of Yiddish, Revised. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 2001.

Weiner, Ellis and Barbara Davilman. Yiddish with Dick and Jane. New York, NY: Little, Brown, 2004.

Weinstein, Miriam. Yiddish: A Nation of Words. New York, NY: Ballantine/Random House, 2001.

Wex, Michael. Born to Kvetch. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2005.

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