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Ethics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ethics. DEFINITIONS Values Morals Ethics Ethical dilemma THE CONCEPT OF ETHICS ‘ethics’ is derived from the Greek term ethos , which means customs, habitual usage, conduct, and character. Common ethical (moral) theories.

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    Ethical dilemma


    • ‘ethics’ is derived from the Greek term ethos, which means customs, habitual usage, conduct, and character

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Common ethical (moral) theories

  • Teleology - actions are ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ according to the balance of their good or bad consequences

    • Utilitarianism is a teleological theory that judges acts based on their utility or usefulness

  • Deontology - actions are performed out of duty or moral obligation; every person is an end and not solely a means to another person’s end.

  • Virtue theory - places value on the moral character of the actor rather than acts or outcomes of acts

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Bioethical principles

Four Major Bioethical Principles in Healthcare

  • The Principle of Autonomy

  • The Principle of Non-Maleficence

  • The Principle of Beneficence

  • The Principle of Justice

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Ethical decision-making within healthcare

  • Ethical decision-making usually involves at least one of four basic principles: autonomy, non-maleficence; beneficence; and justice.

  • Principles for ethical decision-making:

    -respect the autonomy of the individual

    - avoid harm

    - where possible achieve benefit

    - consider, fairly, the interests of all those affected

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Framework for ethical decision-making

Begin by learning to recognise a moral issue

Step 1: Gather all relevant information

Step 2: Identify and clarify the ethical problem(s)

Step 3: Analyse the problem by considering the various ethical theories or approaches

Step 4: Explore the range of options or possible solutions

Step 5: Make a decision

Step 6: Implement and then reflect on the decision