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Birth Control For Teens What every teenager should know before considering a sexually active lifestyle. Having sex is about making choices. We choose when we are ready and when we want to wait. We choose our partners.

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birth control for teens

Birth Control For Teens

What every teenager should know before considering a sexually active lifestyle.

having sex is about making choices
Having sex is about making choices.
  • We choose when we are ready and when we want to wait.
  • We choose our partners.
  • We choose what we want to do and what we don't want to do with our partners.
  • We can choose to do it in the safest way.
guidelines for sex partners
Guidelines for Sex Partners
  • Have each other's consent.
  • Never use pressure.
  • Be honest.
  • Protect each other.
  • Guard against pregnancy and STDs.
  • Be clear with each other about what you want and don't want to do.
  • Respect each other's limits.
  • Accept responsibility for your actions.
hormonal birth control methods
Hormonal Birth Control Methods
  • How It Works
    • Introduce hormones into the body
    • Examples are Estrogen and Progesterone
  • These hormones work to prevent pregnancy in three ways:
    • Increase cervical mucous.
    • Prevents release of the egg.
    • Prevents implantation of the fertilized egg.
the shot depo provera
The Shot — Depo-Provera

How It Works:

  • Clinician will give you a shot (upper arm) of the hormone progestin every 12 weeks.
  • Prevents release of egg.
  • Thickens cervical mucus to keep sperm from joining egg.

Effectiveness = 97–99.7%

  • Not effective against STDs.
the shot depo provera6
The Shot — Depo-Provera

Advantages

  • Prevents pregnancy for 12 weeks.
  • Doesn't need to be taken daily.
  • May reduce menstrual cramps and anemia.
  • Helps prevent cancer of the endometrium (lining of the uterus).
  • Can be used while breastfeeding.

Disadvantages

  • May cause temporary bone thinning.
the shot depo provera7
The Shot — Depo-Provera

Side Effects

  • Include: irregular/late periods, weight gain, headaches, depression, abdominal pain, hair loss, increased facial/body hair, skin rash, nervousness, or spotty skin.
  • Cannot be reversed until medication wears off (up to 12 weeks).
  • May cause delay in getting pregnant.

Cost = $50 for each injection.

the pill
The Pill

How It Works

  • Prescribed by a physician.
  • Take one pill once a day.
  • Contain estrogen and/or progestin.
  • Prevent release of egg.
  • Thickens cervical mucus.

Effectiveness = 92–99.7%

  • Not effective against STDs.
the pill9
The Pill

Advantages

  • Convenience.
  • Less menstrual cramping and menstrual flow - periods become regular.
  • Reduces the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Reduces acne.
  • Reduces risk of ovarian and endometrial cancers, noncancerous growths of the breast, and ovarian cysts.

Disadvantages

  • Must be taken daily, at the same time every day.
the pill10
The Pill

Side Effects

  • Include irregular bleeding, loss of monthly period, weight gain or loss, nausea, breast tenderness, changes in mood, headaches, and other discomforts.
  • Rare but serious health risks, including blood clots, heart attack, and stroke.
  • Will increase smokers risk of heart attack, blood clots, and stroke.

Cost = $20–$35

the patch ortho evra
The Patch — Ortho-Evra

How It Works

  • A thin plastic patch on the skin of your buttocks, stomach, upper outer arm, or upper torso.
  • Once a week for three weeks in a row.
  • Use a new patch each week.
  • Do not use a patch for the fourth week.
  • Protects against pregnancy by releasing estrogen and progestin.

Effectiveness = up to 99.7%

  • Not effective against STDs.
the patch ortho evra12
The Patch — Ortho-Evra

Advantages

  • Protects against pregnancy for one month.
  • Nothing to put in place before vaginal intercourse.
  • No pill to take daily.

Disadvantages

  • Skin reaction.
  • May not be as effective for women who weigh more than 198 pounds.
the patch ortho evra13
The Patch — Ortho-Evra

Side Effects

  • Researchers assume the risks of using the patch are similar to those of using the pill.
  • Will increase smokers risk of heart attack, blood clots, and stroke.
  • Pregnancy can happen if an error is made:
    • Becomes loose or falls off for more than 24 hours.
    • The same patch is left on the skin for more than one week.

Cost = $30–$35 for monthly supply of patches.

the ring nuvaring
The Ring — NuvaRing

How It Works

  • Insert a small, flexible ring deep into your vagina for three weeks in a row and take it out for the fourth week.
  • Protects against pregnancy by releasing estrogen and progestin.

Effectiveness = up to 99.7%

  • Not effective against STDs.
the ring nuvaring15
The Ring — NuvaRing

Advantages

  • Protects against pregnancy for one month.
  • Nothing to put in place before vaginal intercourse.
  • No pill to take daily.
  • Does not require a "fitting" by a clinician.

Disadvantages

  • Increased vaginal discharge.
  • Vaginal irritation or infection.
  • May not be suitable for women who have weak pelvic muscles or chronic constipation.
the ring nuvaring16
The Ring — NuvaRing

Side Effects

  • Researchers assume the risks of using the patch are similar to those of using the pill.
  • Will increase smokers risk of heart attack, blood clots, and stroke.
  • Don't use the ring with another vaginal contraceptive.

Cost = $30–$35 monthly for ring.

the male condom
The Male Condom

How It Works

  • Covers the penis before intercourse with a sheath made of thin latex or plastic to keep sperm from joining egg.
  • Lubricate condoms with spermicide.

Effectiveness = 85–98%

  • Latex condoms reduce the risk of STDs.
the male condom18
The Male Condom

Increase your protection

  • Do not use oil-based lubricants, like Vaseline, baby oil, or massage oils.
  • Use correctly.
  • Lubricate with water-based lubricant, like K-Y jelly.
  • Use spermicides for increased contraceptive effectiveness.
the male condom19
The Male Condom

Advantages

  • Inexpensive and easy to buy.
  • Latex condoms are the best method for sexually active people to protect against STDs.
  • A variety of condoms are available.

Disadvantages

  • Uncooperative partners.
  • Latex allergies – polyurethane and sheepskin.
  • Breakage.
  • Cost = $.50 and up
the female condom
The Female Condom

How It Works

  • A plastic pouch with flexible rings at each end — must be inserted into your vagina.

Effectiveness = 79-95%

  • Latex condoms reduce the risk of STDs.

Cost

  • $2.50 for female condom.
  • $8 for applicator kits of foam and gel.
  • $4–$8 for refills.
female condom
Female Condom

Advantages

  • Easy to buy in drugstores, supermarkets, etc.
  • Erection unnecessary to keep in place.
  • Can be used by people allergic to latex or spermicide.

Disadvantages

  • May irritate vagina or penis.
  • May slip into vagina during intercourse.
  • May be difficult to insert.
prescription barrier method
Prescription Barrier Method

Your clinician will fit you with:

    • Diaphragm = a shallow latex cup
    • Cervical Cap = a thimble-shaped latex cap
    • Femcap = a silicone cup shaped like a sailor's hat
    • Lea’s Shield = or a silicone cup with an air valve

Effectiveness

Diaphragm = 84-94% Cervical Cap = 68-91%

Lea’s Shield = about 85% Femcap = 71-86%

  • Not effective against STDs.
prescription barrier method23
Prescription Barrier Method

Advantages

  • No major health concerns.
  • Can last from six months up to several years

Disadvantages

  • Can be messy.
  • Increased risk of bladder infection.
  • Difficult to use. May cause discomfort.
  • Should be checked for weak spots and fit.
  • Diaphragm can only be left in place for 24 hours.
  • Cervical Cap, Femcap and Lea’s Shield can be left in place for 48 hours.
prescription barrier method24
Prescription Barrier Method

Cost

  • $15–$75 for diaphragm, cap, or shield.
  • $50–$200 for examination.
  • $8–$17 for supplies of spermicide.
methods not usually recommended for teens
Methods Not Usually Recommended For Teens...

Tubal sterilization

  • Permanently blocks a woman's tubes where sperm

join egg.

Vasectomy

  • Permanently block a man's tubes that carry sperm.
  • Removes the vas deferens.

Effectiveness = 99.5–99.9%.

  • Not effective against STDs.
methods not usually recommended for teens26
Methods Not Usually Recommended For Teens...

Withdrawal

  • Pulls out ejaculation to keep sperm from joining egg.

Effectiveness =73–96%.

The IUD (Intrauterine Device)

  • Small Plastic device inserted into the uterus.
  • Contains copper or hormones.
  • Prevents fertilized egg from implanting in uterus.

Effectiveness = 99.2–99.9%

emergency contraception
Emergency Contraception

Provided in two ways:

  • Emergency IUD insertion within seven days of unprotected intercourse is 99.9% effective.
  • Emergency contraception pills
    • reduce the risk of pregnancy if started within 120 hours of unprotected sex.
    • They work best when taken within 72 hours
    • Can reduce the risk of pregnancy from 75 to 89%.
    • Nausea, vomiting, and cramping are common side effects
emergency contraception28
Emergency Contraception

Don't use emergency contraception if:

  • You are pregnant.
  • You are allergic to the medication.
  • Consult your clinician about what kind of emergency contraception pills may be best for you.

Cost

  • Costs between $8 and $35.
  • The cost of a visit, tests, and an exam ranges between $35 and $170.
  • Medicaid covers costs in some cases.
continuous abstinence
Continuous Abstinence

How It Works

  • Abstain from sexual intercourse:
    • Vaginal, anal, and oral.
    • Keeps sperm from joining egg.

Effectiveness = 100%

continuous abstinence30
Continuous Abstinence

Advantages

    • no medical or hormonal side effects
    • is endorsed by many religious groups

Disadvantages

  • People may find it difficult to abstain.
  • Women and men often end their abstinence without being prepared to protect themselves against pregnancy or STDs.
continuous abstinence31
Continuous Abstinence

Advantages for teens

  • Postpone risks.
  • Safe sex

Health advantages. Women who abstain until their 20s are less likely to:

  • get sexually transmitted infections,
  • become infertile,
  • develop cancer of the cervix.
continuous abstinence32
Continuous Abstinence

Lower-risk forms of outercourse include:

  • Kissing
  • Masturbation
  • Erotic Massage
  • Body Rubbing/Frottage
  • Fantasy