Artificial Intelligence Prepared By: AIMCORP-Automated Information Management Corporation
History … • In the early 1900’s, Torresy Quevedo, a Spanish inventor, built a machine that could checkmate its opponent with a rook and a king against a king; • Systematic work began only after the invention of the digital computer; • The 1st scientific article on Artificial Intelligence (AI) was published by Alan Turing in 1950;
History … • The 1st. Full time research group was started in 1954 at Carnegie Mellon University by Allen Newell and Herbert Simon; • It all started in the Dartmouth conference where ten young researchers had the same dream of using a computer to model the ways humans think; • Their hypothesis was that mechanisms of human thought could be precisely modeled and simulated on a digital computer; and • This is what the whole foundation of AI is based on.
Intelligence … • Intelligence is defined as: • The faculty of understanding; • Capacity for learning, reasoning, and understanding; • Aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meaning, etc. • Mental alertness or quickness of understanding; and • Manifestation of a high mental capacity.
Artificial Intelligence ... • The most common definition of Artificial Intelligence is: • The study of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people do better (Rich, 1991). • Another way of defining AI is: • The area of computer science focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviour that humans consider intelligent.
Definition ... • AI is a discipline that allows us to build intelligent computers (Systems/applications) which are capable of learning, understanding, and developing a sense to forecast, foretell, and foresee the behaviour (Ali 1987).
Herbert Simon ... • “It is not my aim to surprise or shock you … but the simplest way I can summarize is to say that there are now machines in the world that can think, that can learn, and that can create. Moreover, their ability to do these things is going to increase rapidly until - in a visible future - the range of problems they can handle will be coextensive with the range to which the human mind has been applied.”
AI Branches of AI … Heuristics Ontology Pattern Recognition Expert Systems Representation Logical AI Inference Search Learning from Experience Planning
Expert Systems … • Expert systems are also known as knowledge-based systems; • Expert systems are computer systems that rely on a knowledge base of rules that pertain to a specific application area; • Experts in the application give rules of thumb to use in certain situations; • The rules of thumb are linked into preset if-then rules to solve the problem; and • Essentially, the expert system mimics the expert’s thought process in troubleshooting the problem.
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