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Wireless Eyeball. Group 9 Alpesh Patel Jesse Gusse Derek Vick Jeff Schwentner. Wireless Eyeball. Allows full control of a motorized camera from a remote location. Camera is mounted on two motors. One motor for Pan. One motor for Tilt. User will control camera remotely using hand

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wireless eyeball

Wireless Eyeball

Group 9

Alpesh Patel

Jesse Gusse

Derek Vick

Jeff Schwentner

slide2

Wireless Eyeball

Allows full control of a motorized camera from a remote location.

  • Camera is mounted on two motors.
      • One motor for Pan.
      • One motor for Tilt.
  • User will control camera remotely using hand
  • held device.
  • Video signal will be sent to hand held device
  • and displayed on the LCD monitor.
  • User can move camera by touching screen.
slide3

Wireless Eyeball

Three modes of operation.

  • User mode
      • Allows user to control camera by

touching screen.

      • Camera moves to desired location.
  • Video Tracking
      • Camera tracks motion.
  • Computer Interface
      • User controls camera via personal

computer.

slide4

Wireless EyeballArtist’s Rendition

360° Tilt

1

User

2

Tracking

3

Computer

On/Off

360° Pan

slide6

LCD Display

&

Touch Screen

LCD Display

&

Touch Screen

Transmitter

Transmitter

Receiver

Receiver

Control Unit (Motors)

Control Unit (Motors)

Camera Mount

Camera Mount

slide7

Wireless Eyeball

  • Wireless Video Camera specifications
      • NTSC Signal Format
      • 2.4GHz Wireless Technology
  • LCD Monitor specifications
      • Composite NTSC & RGB input
      • Connects by RCA video jack
      • 100.7 mm diagonal viewing area
slide9

Touchscreen

Touchscreen uses are varied, therefore we wanted to implement the use of one in this project. Touchscreens can be found in the following arenas:

Monitors.

Information Kiosks.

PDA’s.

Automobiles

Industry and production at all levels

Self-service stations.

analog resistive touchscreen

Analog Resistive Touchscreen

The analog resistive touchscreen that we used was donated by 3M Dynapro. An analog resistive touchscreen acts much like a variable resistor. Depending on the touch, a different resistance occurs. This yields different voltage levels which can be used by an AD converter to determine the location of a valid touch.

valid touch

Valid Touch

The analog resistive touchscreens are sensors consisting of two layers, horizontal and vertical. These layers are coated with a resistive material called ITO (indium tin oxide). This resistivity is between 100 and 500 ohms per square.

PL (polyester laminated)

very rugged

include a TFT (Thin Film Transistor) display

FG (flex-on-glass)

more affordable and smaller

made for non-extreme conditions

most importantly, this was the type that Dynapro donated

fg analog resistive touchscreen

Two types, 4-wire and 8-wire designs

The 8-wire design is for larger touchscreens

4-wire design is for the smaller and more common applications.

The one used in this project is the 4-wire design.

When reading the opposing axes of the touchscreen, the 4 lines are alternated. Multiplexing must occur to decipher the different axes.

FG analog resistive touchscreen
touchscreen picture

Touchscreen Picture

Dimensions are 2.75” by 3.75”.

It has the flex cable tail. Which is basically a film with the signal lines painted on.

This makes it very fragile and ZIF (zero insertion force) connector will be used.

touchscreen controller

Touchscreen Controller

The MCU used is the AVR 8535 from Atmel.

32 x 8 General-purpose Working Registers

Up to 8 MIPS Throughput at 8 MHz

Data and Nonvolatile Program Memories

8K Bytes of In-System Programmable Flash

SPI Serial Interface for In-System Programming

Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles

512 Bytes EEPROM

512 Bytes Internal SRAM

8-channel, 10-bit ADC

analog digital conversion
Analog/Digital Conversion

ADMUX Register

The ADMUX is where you set the appropriate bits so that you can multiplex between input signals. This is necessary for this project because the different axis reads on the touchscreen will need to be multiplexed.

ADCH and ADCL Register

When a conversion is made. The result is found in these two registers. ADCH and ADCL. ADCH holds the upper two bits of the 10-bit result. ADCL holds the lower 8 bits. ADCL gets read first, and once this is read, the register will not be updated until ADCH is read. A value of $000 represents ground and $3FF is the highest value (reference voltage – 1).

ad program snippet

AD Program Snippet

*ADCSR = (*ADCSR | 0xE0); /* enable ADC *//* change ADMUX HERE and take new*/

ADMUX = 0x00; ALVert = ADCL; AHVert = ADCH; /*get full 10 bit ADC must shift upper register */ AinVert = ( (ALVert) | (AHVert << 8) ); .

.

.

.

/*change ADMUX HERE and take new*/ ADMUX = 0x02;

ALHorz = ADCL; AHHorz = ADCH;

example touch assume ad got 2 5 volt read for both x and y axes

Example Touch(assume AD got 2.5 volt read for both X and Y axes)

ADC conversion coordinate is then (512,512)

example touch
Example Touch

Therefore the pixel location would be (184,184). Which is about in the middle of the display, consistent with a 2.5 Volt read on a 5 Volt scale.

slide20

However, pixel precision is very high, that precision will not be obtainable. We have decided to break our screen into a set number of units. 16 units by 16 units is the grid that will be used. Therefore, if a touch yielded a pixel location of (245, 245), the coordinate marked by the X on the following diagram will be what is sent, RF, to the stepper motors. This coordinate is (12,12)

slide23

Wireless Coordinate Link

Used to facilitate the transfer of coordinate data from the user’s display module to the Camera Mount.

  • Activated when the touch screen is pressed.
  • High data rate to minimize response time of the motorized camera mount.
  • Parallel method of coordinate transfer for simplicity of use.
wireless coordinate link transmitter specifications
The transmitter must support a data rate of:

This includes any overhead bits associated with the method of data transfer used (checksum, repetitive bits, etc.)

Wireless Coordinate LinkTransmitter Specifications
wireless coordinate link transmitter specifications1
Wireless Coordinate LinkTransmitter Specifications

LINX Technologies offered the best RF modules suited for the data link.

  • 433-LC SeriesTransmitter & Receiver
  • 4,800 bps data rate
  • 300 foot max range
  • Surface Mount
  • $ 0.00 (Sampled)
  • 900-HP-II SeriesTransmitter & Receiver
  • 50,600 bps data rate
  • 1,000 foot max range
  • Though hole mounting
  • $ 76.29
wireless coordinate link transmitter specifications2
Wireless Coordinate LinkTransmitter Specifications

LINX 433-LC RF Module Characteristics:

  • Serial bit stream
  • 433 MHz Base Frequency
  • CPCA (Carrier-Present Carrier-Absent)‘0’ = 433 MHz Carrier not detected‘1’ = 433 MHz Carrier detected
  • 5 msec Oscillator settling time
  • Needs additional hardware to support parallel data transfer.
wireless coordinate link encoder decoder specifications
Wireless Coordinate LinkEncoder/Decoder Specifications

Motorola MC145026P (Encoder) and MC145027P (Decoder) provide the parallel to serial conversion needed to complete the wireless data link.

Advantages:

  • 5 trinary address bits available (243 values)
  • Encode 4 data bits of data per sample.
  • Saves space, only one data bus needed for coordinate system.
  • The operating frequency of the chips are fully configurable.
fcc considerations code of federal regulations cfr
FCC ConsiderationsCode of Federal Regulations (CFR)
  • Section 15.231, Title 47:
  • Governs the 433 MHz frequency
  • Restricts the use of this frequency to periodic transmissions.
  • Used to relay control signals such asgarage door openers, remote switches, etc.
  • Illegal “toy” frequency
camera mount
Camera Mount
  • Pan and Tilt capabilities.
  • Full 360 degrees both horizontal
  • and vertical directions.
  • Use of two stepper motors
  • interfaced with gears.
use of stepper motors
Use of Stepper Motors
  • Precision control of position and speed.
    • Software can determine the exact position at all times.
    • Speed can be controlled by varying the time delay between energizing each coil.
  • Eliminates the need for feedback.
    • Ordinary dc motors require a feedback mechanism for accurate control.
    • More efficient.
    • Less circuitry.
kinds of stepper motors
Unipolar

Most common.

Does not require polarity of the voltage across each coil to change.

Less complicated driver circuitry.

Easily interfaces to cpu requiring only four I/0 lines for each motor.

Bipolar

More expensive.

Requires a reverse in voltage polarity across each coil for every other step.

More complicated driver circuitry.

Kinds of Stepper motors
unipolar stepper motor
Unipolar Stepper Motor

A unipolar stepper motor

consists of four coils

created by actually only

two coils each center tapped

to a common source.

To turn the motor, each

coil must be energized

in a certain sequence called

a step sequence.

step sequence
Full Step Sequence

Less steps per sequence.

Provide motor with greater torque.

Less resolution as in more degrees per step.

Half Step Sequence

Double the amount of steps per sequence than full step.

Less torque.

Double the resolution.

Step Sequence
slide39

Full Step Sequence

Total of four steps in one complete sequence.

Half Step Sequence

Total of eight steps in one complete sequence.

camera motion
Camera Motion

vertical

vertical

horizontal

horizontal

  • Move the camera completely horizontal then move completely vertical.
  • Move the camera one step horizontal then one step vertical and so on.
  • Problem:
  • Number of steps in the horizontal direction differs from the number of steps
  • in the vertical direction.
  • Solution:
  • Determine which line of direction has requires a greater number of Steps.
  • Then take the ratio of the two numbers.
  • Example:
  • Number of horizontal steps = 12
  • Number of vertical steps = 4
  • Ratio 12 / 4 = 3
  • Move three horizontal steps for every one vertical step until desired camera
  • Position is reached.
avr mega163 microcontroller
AVR MEGA163 Microcontroller
  • 8 bit microcontroller manufactured by ATMEL Co.
  • Memory space
    • 16 Kbytes of flash program memory
    • 512 bytes of EEprom
    • 1024 bytes of Sram
  • 32 by 8bit general purpose working registers
  • 32 programmable bi-directional I/O lines
  • Sleep mode
  • Operating voltages between 2.7-5.5V
  • Power consumption @ 4MHz
    • Active 5mA @ 5V
    • Sleep 1.9mA @ 5V
driver
Driver
  • The purpose of the driver is to supply enough current to the coils of the motor.
  • Since the microcontroller ports source a max of 20mA it is insufficient to drive a motor directly.
  • ULN2003 Driver IC manufactured by Allegro Microsystems.
  • The IC is an NPN TTL input Darlington driver capable of sinking up to 500mA of current which is sufficient for the motors we are using.
slide43

Driver allows control signals from processor to selectively create a current path to ground.

  • Design Issues
  • Back electro-magnetic force (EMF).
  • Solution
  • Zener diode
  • Separate voltage sources
interface
Interface

Driver 1

Data Lines

Motor 1

RF DECODER

portB

portA

Valid Data

External

Interupt

Driver 2

Motor 2

portC

Microcontroller

coordinate scheme
Coordinate Scheme
  • LCD screen broken down into 256 different squares and 4 quadrants.
  • X and Y coordinates are represented by a four bit binary number.
  • Quadrants I and IV: Pan left Quadrants II and III: Pan right
  • Quadrants I and II : Tilt up Quadrants III and IV: Tilt down
  • Dimensions of LCD screen are 2.75” x 3.75”
programming
Programming

Initializations

  • Programming done in

assembly language.

  • The AVR instruction set

offers 118 powerful instructions.

  • Most instructions execute in a

single clock cycle.

  • 4 MHz operating frequency.

Sleep mode

wake on interrupt

Pan left or right

Tilt up or down

Calculate number of steps

horizontal and vertical

Calculate horizontal

to vertical ratio

Determine previous

camera position

Move camera to

new position

slide49

Power Requirements

9 V

12 V

4 V

5 V

LCD monitor

X-10 Transmitter

Receiver

X-10 Receiver

Tilt Motor

CPLD

Atmel Microcontroller

Pan Motor

Memory (512k X 8)

Transmitter

Video Decoder

Encoder / Decoder

Motorized Camera

Mount

Hand-held module

slide51

Parallel Port Interface

Will allow user to control camera mount by PC.

  • User module will connect to computer via
  • parallel port.
  • Computer software will be used to send
  • signals to user module.
  • Signals will be sent in proper order to
  • control stepping sequence.
slide52

Parallel Port Interface

The GUI will be created in Visual Basic.

Wireless Eyeball GUI

slide53

Parallel Port Interface

  • 8 output pins (Data Port)
  • 5 input pins (Status Port)
  • 4 output pins (Control Port)
  • 8 pins are grounded
slide56

Video Tracking

Goals:

  • Control the camera mount for the user.
  • Provide a primitive means of motion tracking.
  • Modular System
  • Complete containment within the User’s Display Module.
video tracking hardware
Video TrackingHardware

The video receiver produces a NTSC-M video signal. This signal must be digitally stored as two frames spaced a short period of time apart.

  • Samsung KS0127B Video Decoder/Scaler
  • Decodes the signal into a digital stream of pixel luminance and color values (YCbCr).
  • Generates 13 timing signals to align pixels within a frame.
  • Ability to “downsize” a video frame to a smaller size (720 x 480 to 45 x 30).
video tracking interfacing problems
Video TrackingInterfacing Problems

The Video Decoder produces pixels at a rate of 13.5 MHz, too fast for the 8 MHz Microcontroller

  • Lattice Semiconductor M5-128/120-15YC Programmable Logic Device (CPLD)
  • Capable of Handling rates up to 90MHz
  • 120 I/O ports (70 used)
  • In-system Programmability
  • VHDL
video tracking memory
Video TrackingMemory
  • Need memory to store video frames delivered from the CPLD
  • Samsung K6T4008C1C (SRAM)
  • 4 Mb storage
  • Capable of storing 1500 scaled video frames.
slide61

Video TrackingBlock Diagram

X10 Video

Receiver

NTSC-M

X10 Video

Receiver

NTSC-M

Video

Decoder

KS0127B

Video

Decoder

KS0127B

Programmable

Logic Device

CPLD

Programmable

Logic Device

CPLD

Programmable

Logic Device

CPLD

Memory

SRAM

512k x 8

Memory

SRAM

512k x 8

Microcontroller

AVR8535

Microcontroller

AVR8535

Encoder

&

Transmitter

Encoder

&

Transmitter

Transmit

Coordinates

video tracking centroid algorithm1
Video TrackingCentroid Algorithm
  • Need an algorithm to approximate the center of motion and at the same time ignore slight fluctuations between frames.

Weighted Luminance

Unweighted Luminance

slide66

Component

Value

Cost

Atmel STK200 Evaluation Board

$80.00

$80.00

Atmel AT90LS8535 (for prototyping)

$10.00

$10.00

Atmel AT90LS8535 (for final construction)

$10.00

$10.00

Atmel AT90LS8535 (for backup)

$10.00

$10.00

DynaPro RES3.8 FG Touchscreen

$70.00

$0.00

ZIF connectors for touchscreen tail

$8.00

$8.00

Power Supply for Touch Screen

$20.00

$0.00

Wire, solder, headers, snippers & strippers

$30.00

$30.00

ESD Chip

$20.00

$20.00

Transmitter (Linx TXM-433-LC)

$6.09

$0.00

Receiver (Linx RXM-433-LC)

$13.80

$0.00

Antenna (Antenna Factor ANT-433-PW-QW)

$13.40

$13.40

Parallel-to-serial encoder (Motorola MC145026P)

$2.07

$2.07

Serial-to-parallel decoder (Motorola MC145027P)

$3.56

$3.56

Board Layout cost

$110.00

$110.00

Casing for user module

$50.00

$50.00

Resistors, Capacitors, Etc.

$30.00

$30.00

X-10 Wireless Camera

$70.00

$70.00

Sharp 4" NTSC LCD monitor

$175.00

$175.00

Gears for Motorized Mount

$5.00

$5.00

Mount for Camera

$20.00

$20.00

Bread Board

$15.00

$15.00

Stepper Motors

$20.00

$20.00

AT90s8515

$10.00

$10.00

AVR STK500 Programming Kit

$108.00

$108.00

Total:

$905

$800.00

slide67

Component

Value

Value

Cost

Cost

Video Decoder (Samsung KS0127B)

Total Cost of Non-Optional Products

$905.00

$32.00

$800.00

$0.00

4Megabit Memory (K6T4008C1C-GL55)

$22.80

$0.00

Total Cost of Video Tracking Option

$400.90

$0.00

CPLD (Lattice M5-256/160-15YC)

$51.10

$0.00

Total Cost of Project

$1,305.90

$800.00

DSP (Texas Instruments Starter Kit - TMDX320005402)

$295.00

$0.00

Total:

$400.90

$0.00

slide68

Project Progress

Milestone Chart