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The educational value of digital games The use of digital games in the learning process has a high potential, which resides in (Malone, 1981; Ruben, 1999; Prensky , 2000; Gee, 2003; Pivec and Kearney, 2007): the level of motivation involved in the act of playing:

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The educational value of digital games


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the educational value of digital games
The educational value of digital games

The use of digital games in the learning process has a high potential, which resides in (Malone, 1981; Ruben, 1999; Prensky, 2000; Gee, 2003; Pivec and Kearney, 2007):

  • the level of motivation involved in the act of playing:
  • making progress in the exploration;
  • assimilating new knowledge in the context of a continuous and significant narrative line, inserted in a parasocial universe of characters
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The educational value of digital games

Prensky (2000), followed by Gee (2003), supports and defines the learning processes through the use of digital games as game based learning: the use of digital games in learning contexts to improve and accelerate the learning process, by motivating the students.

Gros (2003) enhances that for digital games to be used for educational purposes they must be endowed with well defined learning goals, teaching contents to the users or promoting the development of important strategies and skills to increase their intellectual and cognitive abilities.

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The educational value of digital games

According to Malone (1981) and Garris et al (2002), the factors that contribute to the strength and consistence of digital games as educational tools are the challenge, the fantasy (imaginary contexts, themes and fantasy characters), the sensorial stimuli (visual and hearing, dramatic and new), the curiosity and the involved learning. Garris et al (2002) point out that games should include characteristics which enable quality learning.

These elements must be incorporated on an integrated platform, to structure objectives and rules, a context of meaningful learning, an appealing story, immediate feedback, a high level of interactivity, challenge and competition, random elements of surprise and rich environments for learning (Garris et al, 2002; Malone, 1981).

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The educational value of digital games

These factors determine the motivation to play and learn at the same time (Malone, 1981; Ruben, 1999; Prensky, 2000; Garris et al, 2002), being also important for an effective and successful learning, through the offer of contents like interactivity, feedback, solving problems and the effects of context, which promote reflective behaviors’ among the players (Pivec and Kearney, 2007). Games make the learning process possible by allowing the development of critical thinking that will be outlined during the act of playing.

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Advantages of the educational use of digital games

Digital games provide amusing alternatives, more active and autonomous, opposing to the traditional methods used in the process of teaching and learning, making possible the materialization of a Prensky (2001b) statement, which predicts that today’s students, the digital natives, will teach themselves.

Some types of games and technologies associated to digital games are already being used as supporting tools to achieve learning goals in formal education environments, either directly or as an attractive tool for unmotivated students (BECTA, 2003).

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Advantages of the educational use of digital games

According to Prensky (2000) and Gee (2003) games allow the development of new learning strategies, based on new interactivity patterns, like feedback, reflective and critical learning, target levels of understanding semiotics, learning through discovery and exploration, situated learning, role-playing and constructivist learning. Regarding this problem, Grealls (2000) refers that digital games enable the assimilation and the appropriation of information, the construction and the application of cognitive strategies, developing various skills such as psychomotor ability, decisions making and perseverance.

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Advantages of the educational use of digital games

To Prensky (2000), the main benefits of gaming are the users’ capability of processing simultaneous information, leading to the development of awareness of non linear information, which is typical from digital natives (Prensky, 2001a, 2001b), as well as enabling the sense of belonging to a non geographical community, which should broaden the players’ horizons.

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The study

The study was conducted in January 2009, with students from the Graduation in Education of the Minho University, having as main objective to evaluate the relationship between the use of digital games and study habits among students.

For this study we used predominantly a quantitative survey, using an original questionnaire for data collection. The sample consists of 56 individuals, aged between 18 and 35 years.

The questionnaire had four key points:

  • Identification
  • Brief description of academic background
  • Study habits
  • Experience with computer games
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The sample

  • 17, 9% of the sample is male and 82,1% female.
  • In regard to the study habits of the sample, it appears that most individuals study every day or 3 times per week.
  • In regard to the hours of concentration achieved, the most significant interval is between 1 to 2 hours of concentration.
  • A large percentage of the sample (48.2%) rated their experience with computers as average On the issue of use of computer games, 28 subjects in the sample stated that they play videogames frequently
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Critical analisys

  • The majority of the sample considers videogames a learning tool
  • The typology of games prefered by the subjects is world building games, followed by simulation games, role playing games and plataform games. The less refered typology is action / adventure games.
  • Based in the principles for game based learning defined by Prensky (2000) and Gee (2003) the subjects consider that the most significant processes and techniques involved in game based learning are learning through practice and learning through trial and error.
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Critical analisys

  • The majority of the sample believes that one of the key factors that makes digital games a strong educational resource is the development of skills.
  • Individuals who consider videogames strong educational resources and use them daily dedicate more hours to study, and their capacity of concentration is higher than in individuals who do not use digital games. It was also noted that
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Conclusions

Individuals who use digital games have more consistent patterns of study.

It was not established any significant statistical relationship between the use of digital games and learning outcomes.

We believe that further study with a broader population would provide more representative results, thus contributing to the promotion of videogames as learning factors within educational institutions and agents.

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References

BECTa (2003). Howtochoose and use appropriatecomputergames in theclassroom. http://schools.becta.org.uk/index.php?section=re&&catcode=framework_form&rid=1859.

Gee, J. P., (2003). What Video GamesHavetoTeachUsaboutLearning and Literacy, PalgraveMacmillan: New York.

Garris, R., Ahlers, R., & Driskell, J. E. (2002). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practicemodel. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441-467. http://www.diegolevis.com.ar/secciones/Infoteca/vj_motivacion.pdf

Graells, P. M. (2000). Los Videojuegos y sus Posibilidades Educativas. http://dewey.uab.es/pmarques/pravj.htm#fuentes

Greenfield, P. M. (1996). Video Games as Cultural Artifacts, Interactingwith video. Advances in AppliedDevelopmentalPsychology, vol. 11, pp. 85-94.

Gros, B. (2003). Theimpact of videogames in education. FirstMonday, v. 8, n. 7, jul. 2003. http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue8_7/xyzgros/index.html

Kirriemuir, J. e Mcfarlane, A. (2004). LiteratureReview in Games and Learning. Bristol: Futurelab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications_reports_articles/literature_reviews/Literature_Review378

Malone, T.W. (1981). Toward a theory of intrinsicallymotivatinginstruction. CognitiveScience 4.

Pivec, M., & Kearney, P. (2007). GamesforLearning and LearningfromGames. Informatica 31 (2007) pp 419-423.

Prensky, M. (2000). Digital Game-BasedLearning. McGraw-Hill.

Ruben, B. D. (1999). Simulations, games, and experience-basedlearning: Thequestfor a new paradigmforteaching and learning. Simulation & Gaming,30, 498-505.