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The Rise of Fascism & Militarism in Italy, Germany & Japan; & Prelude to War: American Policy of Neutrality. Benitio Mussolini: "What is Fascism?" (1932) . 1922-Mussolini & the Fascist Party came to power in Italy 1932-Mussolini wrote a definition of Fascism for the Italian dictionary

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the rise of fascism militarism in italy germany japan prelude to war american policy of neutrality

The Rise of Fascism & Militarism in Italy, Germany & Japan;& Prelude to War: American Policy of Neutrality

benitio mussolini what is fascism 1932
Benitio Mussolini: "What is Fascism?" (1932)
  • 1922-Mussolini & the Fascist Party came to power in Italy
  • 1932-Mussolini wrote a definition of Fascism for the Italian dictionary
  • Rejection of Pacifism, Marxism & Democracy
  • Life=duty, struggle & conquest
  • Humans=inherently unequal
  • State=superior to the individual
  • Territorial Expansion=manifestation of a nation’s vitality
raymond h geist s letter to moffat 1934
Raymond H. Geist’s letter to Moffat (1934)
  • Geist = U.S. Consul in Berlin
  • Moffat=chief of the division of Western European Affairs
  • Letter of Sept. 15, 1934
  • Describes the newly established Nazi state
  • Germany is remilitarizing
    • Building up its air force & mechanized divisions
    • The German youth is glorifying military heroism
  • Predicts war by the end of the decade
nuremberg laws 1935
Nuremberg Laws (1935)
  • Proclaimed during the 1935 Nuremburg Rally
  • Laws severely restricted the freedoms of German Jews
  • the Jim Crow Laws in the American South= a model for segregation
  • Forbade Marriage & Sexual Relations between Germans & Jews
  • Stripped Citizenship from German-Jews
haile selassie s appeal to the league of nations june 1936
Haile Selassie’s Appeal to the League of Nations(June 1936)
  • October 3, 1935, Mussolini launched an invasion of Ethiopia
  • Haile Selassie I =Emperor of Ethiopia
  • League had promised Ethiopia assistance against Italian aggression
  • Outlines Italian policy of targeting civilians
  • Exposes Italian diplomatic treachery
  • Exposes the League’s goal of collective security as a sham
  • Argues that, by its inaction, the League is establishing a deadly precedent of “bowing before force”
  • ultimately, the League does nothing
  • Other states like Germany & Japan are encourage to pursue expansionist aims
hossbach memorandum berlin november 10 1937
Hossbach Memorandum (BERLIN, November 10, 1937)
  • Since his seizure of power in 1933, Hitler demanded a fair but peaceful revision of the Versailles Treaty.
  • Hitler exploited widespread international pacifism
  • In 1937, Hitler held a secret meeting in Berlin with his top generals
  • Germany’s Problem=lack of living space
  • autarky, participation in the world economy and overseas colonies are rejected as possible solutions
  • Goal of German Foreign Policy=Expansion at the expense of Germany’s neighbors
  • War must come by 1943-1945, because Germany’s enemies will have caught up with German rearmament
kellogg briand pact 1928
Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
  • Named after the American secretary of state, Frank B. Kellogg & French Foreign minister Aristide Briand
  • Treaty renounced war as a means of national policy
  • International Disputes should be solved by peaceful means
  • helped to formulate later international law especially notions of “crimes against peace.”
  • Pact lack an efficient enforcement mechanism
slide12
Message to the Nations of the World appealing for Peace by Disarmament and the end of Economic Chaos, (May 16, 1933)
  • To solve the global financial crisis, Franklin Roosevelt urges economic cooperation and an international agreement for disarmament.
  • Considers Armaments to be unnecessary
  • Proposes that all gov’ts reduce their militaries
  • Urges Gov’ts to adopt transcend domestic needs & create lasting international economic reform
the nye report february 24 1936
The Nye Report (February 24, 1936)
  • In 1934, Senator Nye headed an investigation of the munitions industry.
  • he charged the industry with corruption by connecting wartime profits of the banking & munitions industries to America's involvement in World War I
  • Many Americans felt betrayed
  • perhaps the war hadn't been an epic battle between the forces of good (democracy) and evil (autocracy)
  • The report bolstered sentiments for isolationism
is neutrality possible by gerald nye
"Is Neutrality Possible?" By Gerald Nye
  • World War I led to an unacceptable loss of life & caused grave economic consequences
  • The U.S. should focus its energies at home
  • U.S. should avoid European entanglements
  • Neutrality is the preferred policy over “collective security”
  • Munitions manufacturers stir up animosities between Japan & the U.S. to ensure profits
  • Money wasted on the military could be used for the public’s benefit
  • The spread of Fascism can be checked by building up a better societal model in the United States
neutrality act of august 31 1935
"Neutrality Act" of August 31, 1935
  • spurred by the growth of isolationism after WW1
  • Goal=to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts
  • Prohibited
    • Sale of arms to nations at war
    • The transport of arms on American vessels
    • Americans from traveling on belligerent vessels
  • Further amended in 1936, 1937 & 1939
  • Allowed the President to decide when nations were at war
    • This provided a loophole that FDR carefully exploited to assist American allies from aggressor states
  • Legacy
    • Made no distinction between Aggressor states & states being attacked
    • they limited the US government's ability to aid Britain vs. Nazi Germany
address delivered by president roosevelt before the congress january 3 1936
Address Delivered by President Roosevelt Before the Congress, January 3, 1936
  • Points
    • International tensions have steadily increased over the past 3 years
    • By contrast, Western Hemisphere enjoys a “good neighbor” policy
    • The U.S. must take note of the rise of aggression abroad
      • These states lack democratic channels for change
    • Bellicose states have blocked disarmament efforts
  • Although it reaffirms American isolation, FDR’s speech is notable for its markedly pessimistic tone
roosevelt s quarantine speech october 5 1937
Roosevelt's "Quarantine" Speech (October 5, 1937)
  • Hopes for global peace are undermined by aggressor states
  • “foundations of civilization” are threatened
  • The U.S. & the Western Hemisphere also in danger
  • Complete isolation from the world isn’t possible
  • U.S. must reestablish international law & morality
  • War is like a disease, it must be quarantined to protect the world
  • With the speech, FDR sounds the alarm that American must now take notice of global problems
america first party
America First Party
  • Est. September 1940
  • Pressure group to keep the U.S. out of the war
  • Peak membership=800,000
  • April 23, 1941 Charles Lindbergh speech in New York
    • U.S. shouldn’t enter war unless it can win
    • Britain nor the U.S. can defeat Germany
    • Fall of the democracies in Europe can be blamed on the interventionists in those countries (effectively blames the victims)
    • Britain is trying to lure the U.S. into the war
    • FDR is leading the U.S. into war but the majority is against it
    • U.S should follow the Monroe Doctrine & Washington’s advice to avoid “entangling alliances”
lindbergh s des moines speech sept 11 1941
Lindbergh’s Des Moines Speech(Sept. 11, 1941)
  • Propaganda has led the American public from isolation toward being on the verge of war
  • 3 groups are responsible
    • The British
    • The Jews
    • The Roosevelt Administration
  • According to Lindbergh, these groups control the media & are brainwashing the public
  • Lindbergh’s speech with its anti-Semitic connotations enraged many
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Slide #1:
    • Mussolini/Hitler: http://www.provincia.torino.it/cultura/rosanero/im/27.jpg
    • Roosevelt: http://history.acusd.edu/cdr2/WW2Pics/04629.GIF
    • Lindbergh: http://staff.imsa.edu/socsci/jvictory/isolationism/lindbergh_amerfirst.jpg
  • Slide #2
    • Photo of Mussolini: http://homepage.ntlworld.com/haywardlad/famous/heads-mussolini.jpg
  • Slide #3
    • Photo of Hitler: http://www.digischrift.nl/lessen/adolfhitler1/index.3.jpg
    • Photo of Nuremberg Rally: http://history.acusd.edu/cdr2/WW2Pics/58806.jpg
  • Slide #4
    • Photo of Nazi Eugenic Test: http://cla.calpoly.edu/~lcall/eugenics.jpg
    • Photo of “Jew Only Bench”: http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~rescuers/book/Pinkhof/yaari/sophpix/jewonly.gif
    • Photo of Jewish Shop: http://mayoramber.esmartdesign.com/windowbig.jpg
  • Slide #5
  • Time Cover of Haile Selassie: http://img.timeinc.net/time/magazine/archive/covers/1936/1101360106_400.jpg
  • Slide #6
    • Photo of German Troops: http://www.umkc.edu/lib/spec-col/ww2/1939/images/63-579.jpg
  • Slide #7
    • Defense Spending Chart: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/5c/Graph_top7_def_expd_1930-38.png
  • Slide #8
    • David Lowe Cartoon: http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/honsem/theses/mkravetz03/SpinelessBg.jpg
  • Slide #9
    • German Expansion: http://www.msubillings.edu/history/NaziExpansion.jpg
  • Slide #10
    • Japanese Expansion Before Pearl Harbor: http://www.shsu.edu/~his_sub/map--imperial%20japan.jpg
  • Slide #11
    • Kellogg-Briand: http://history.acusd.edu/cdr2/WW2Pics3/01115.jpg
  • Slide #13
    • The Nye Committee: http://history.acusd.edu/cdr2/WW2Pics/00811.jpg
  • Slide #15
    • Political Cartoon: http://www.beyondbelief72.com/hello/27/1105/1024/011140_parrish.jpg
  • Slide #17
    • Roosevelt: http://www.theconnection.org/photogallery/fdr/images/1.jpg
  • Slide #18
    • Political Cartoon: http://spartans.sstx.org/~wgoodman/WWIIisolationismcart.jpg
  • Slide #19
    • Lindbergh America First: http://staff.imsa.edu/socsci/jvictory/isolationism/lindbergh_amerfirst.jpg
  • Slide #20
    • Dr. Suess Cartoon: http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/speccoll/dspolitic/pm/10602cs.jpg