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Pineapples. Family Bromeliaceae Genus Ananas Species comosus. Reading. Pineapple Cultivation in Hawaii Bartholomew, Rohrbach, and Evans University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Service F&N-7 October, 2002 pdf file on web page. Herbaceous Perennial. Flower description.

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Pineapples l.jpg

Pineapples

Family Bromeliaceae

Genus Ananas

Species comosus


Reading l.jpg
Reading

  • Pineapple Cultivation in Hawaii

    • Bartholomew, Rohrbach, and Evans

    • University of Hawaii

    • Cooperative Extension Service

    • F&N-7

    • October, 2002

    • pdf file on web page

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Herbaceous Perennial

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Flower description

  • Inflorescence

    • 100-200 flowers

  • Flower

    • Perfect with floral bract

    • Three fleshy sepals and petals

    • Six stamens

    • Inferior ovary with 3 locules

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Flower description

  • Commercial clones are self incompatible

    • Set parthenocarpically

      • Only one cultivar planted in a field

    • Pollinated by hummingbirds

      • Can produce seed if cross pollinated

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Fruit Description

  • Terminal Fruit

  • Crown - leafy apical shoot

  • Multiple fruit

    • White to Yellow flesh

    • 10-18% brix

    • 0.5 - 1.6% acidity

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple is a Multiple Fruit

  • Many flowers on one inflorescence

  • Multiple fruit

    • Fusion of berry-like fruitlets

    • Bases of sepals and bracts

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Probably domesticated by the Tupi-Guarani people in the Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Probably domesticated by the Tupi-Guarani people in the Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Columbus 1493

Early 16th century

Spread through the tropical Americas and Caribbean before Columbus arrived in 1493

Carried on ships as protection against scurvy

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Tropical Fruit Production Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

FAOSTAT database, 2000-2002

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Production Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

FAOSTAT database, 2000-2002

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Production Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

FAOSTAT database, 2000-2002

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Now Produced throughout the Tropics Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Hawaii

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

P

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Production and Yield Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

FAOSTAT database, 2000-2002

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Adaptation: Temperature Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • Average yearly temperature

    • 65-79° F

  • Poor growth

    • Below 55-60° F

    • Above 95° F

  • Optimum growth conditions

    • Cool nights with sunny days

    • Day temp 70 - 85° F

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Adaptation: Rain Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • Drought tolerant plant

    • Leaf adaptations

    • CAM type plant

  • Grown in range of rain conditions

    • 24” (600 mm) - works well if even distribution

    • 150” (3600 mm) per year

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Adaptation Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • Soil

    • Acid soil, pH 4.5 to 5.6

    • Good drainage

    • Fertility

      • Best production at high fertility

      • Tolerates low fertility

      • Tolerates high levels of AL+3 and Mn+2

    • High OM and K desirable for best yields

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Propagation of the Pineapple Paraná-Paraguay river drainage areaVegetative propagation

  • Crowns

  • Slips

  • Hapas

  • Suckers

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Propagation - Crowns Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • Crowns preferred

    • Preformed roots and good reserves

    • Best grade by weight to reduce variability

  • Cannery byproduct

    • Twisted off at fruit harvest time

    • Dried or dipped in fungicide

    • Trimmed, weighed

    • Better roots than slips

  • Fresh pineapples marketed with crowns

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Crowns for Planting Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Propagation - Slips Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • Rudimentary fruit with crown

    • From axis of leaves on fruit stalk

    • Curved at base -

      • Visible when fruit 1/2 developed

  • After harvesting the fruit

    • Allow to develop another 4-5 months

  • Storage

    • Can store for 1 year up side down in sun

    • Best yield if plant within 1 month

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Crown Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Slips

Slips allowed to develop 4-5 months after fruit harvest before using

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Propagation - Suckers Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • From axillary buds on stem

    • Begin to grow during floral differentiation

  • Cut from stem after fruit harvest

  • Larger than crowns/slips when collected

    • Floral precocity  uneven harvest

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Sucker versus a Crown Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Sucker

Crown

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Time to Harvest varies with Planting Material Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Uneven Fruiting and Increased Harvest Cost

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Up side Down Propagation Material Paraná-Paraguay river drainage areaDrying in the sun

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Plant Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Growing

Force

Flower

Harvest

1

Planted Crop

11

14

18

Force

Flower

Harvest

1st Ratoon Sucker Development

19

25

28

32

1st Ratoon Crop

Force

Flower

Harvest

2nd Ratoon Sucker Development

33

39

42

46

2nd Ratoon Crop

Growing Cycle - 3 harvestsHawaii - 20-22 degrees north

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Crop Cycle Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • Planted year round

    • Forced 9 - 13 mos later

  • Plant crop duration

    • In Hawaii (20-22 degrees north)

      • 15-20 months

    • More tropical areas where warmer

      • 11 - 14 months

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Ratoon Crop Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • Forced 5-7 months post plant harvest

  • Ratoon fruits

    • Smaller

    • Sweeter, less acidic, more aromatic

  • Second ratoon crop possible if

    • Soil is fertile and low nematode

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Smaller Fruit Size with Each Crop Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Fruit Size Paraná-Paraguay river drainage area

  • Largest size for processors

  • Regulate size by the timing of flower forcing

  • Fresh market

    • Forced earlier

    • Ratoon crops

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple fruit size is related to size of plant at time of flower induction

25

leaves

3.5 lbs

‘Smooth Cayenne’ fruit wt = plant wt at time of flowering

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Forcing flower induction

  • Ethephon

    • Ethlylene-releasing compound

    • Most common growth hormone used

  • Why force?

    • Uniformity

    • Regulate harvest

  • Forcing easier if:

    • Done near normal flowering time

    • Lower N & less vigor

    • Cool temp (< 24oC night temps)

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Planting flower induction

  • Double rows

    • Pineapple for processor

    • 122 x 60 x 28 cm (4 x 2 x 1 ft)

  • Plant density regulate fruit size

    • Canning, 58,700/ha

    • Fresh, 75,000/ha

      • Fruit size decrease by 300 gm (0.7 lbs)

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Cultural Care in Hawaii flower induction(Not equatorial climate)

  • Fumigate/fertilize preplant

  • Black plastic mulch

    • Nematicides under poly

    • Increases soil temp in rooting zone

    • Conserves moisture and weeds

  • Drip irrigation

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Fertilizer flower induction

  • Nutrient requirements

    • High N, K, and Fe

    • Low requirement of P and Ca

  • Nutrient scheduling

    • Less required for first 5 months

    • Peak 2 - 4 months before forcing

      • Need dark green leaves at forcing for best production

    • Minimal during flowering/fruiting

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pesticides and fungicides sprayed as necessary flower induction

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Harvest flower inductionHarvest as shell color changes from green to yellow at base

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Harvest flower induction

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Harvest flower induction

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Harvest flower induction

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Harvest flower induction

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Pineapple Harvest flower induction

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Cultivars flower induction

  • ‘Smooth Cayenne’

  • Origin - not clear

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Distribution of Cayenne Pineapple flower induction

1835

1860

1820

1885

Hawaii

Hawaii

1893

1897

1858

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Cayenne - most important flower induction

  • Processing

    • Cylindrical for Canning

    • Leaves - no spines, slips few

    • Large fruits 2.5 - 3.5 Kg (5.5-7.7 lbs)

  • Common in USA grocery stores

  • Marginal for fresh market

    • Too high in acid

    • Skin is thin so bruise easily

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Red Spanish - 2nd flower induction

  • Well adapted for shipping fresh

    • 2-4 lbs

    • Pale yellow

  • Grown in Cuba and Puerto Rico

  • Plant

    • Hardy, spiny leaves

    • Many slips

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Sugar Loaf types flower induction

  • Widely grown in tropical America

    • Sweetest of white-fleshed forms

    • Lower acid than Cayenne

    • Many have small fruit (1/2 - 1 kg)

      • Kona Sugarloaf has fruit 2-2.5 kg size

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Post Harvest - Storage flower induction

  • Partially ripe

    • 50 - 55oF

  • Ripe pineapples

    • 45oF

    • RH 85 - 90%

  • Exposure sub 45oF  chilling injury

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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Any Questions about Pineapple? flower induction

Tropical Horticulture - Texas A&M University


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