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IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes. Lecture 1: Introduction. Chapter 1 & 5. Course Instructor. Brian K. Paul PhD 1995, Penn State Office: 322 Rogers Hall E-mail: brian.paul@oregonstate.edu Phone: 737-7320 Office Hours: T: 11:30 – noon R: 11:30 – 13:00. Items to Address.

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ie 337 materials manufacturing processes

IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes

Lecture 1: Introduction

Chapter 1 & 5

course instructor
Course Instructor
  • Brian K. Paul
    • PhD 1995, Penn State
  • Office:
    • 322 Rogers Hall
    • E-mail: brian.paul@oregonstate.edu
    • Phone: 737-7320
  • Office Hours:
    • T: 11:30 – noon
    • R: 11:30 – 13:00
items to address
Items to Address
  • Course Introductions
    • Course Logistics
    • Course Expectations
    • Feedback
  • Introduction to Materials & Processes
    • Material-Geometry-Process Relationships
    • Manufacturing Materials
    • Manufacturing Processes
    • How do we characterize processes?
introductions
Introductions
  • Lectures:
    • Section 001: T, R 10:00 – 11:20 AM 218 Covell Hall
  • Labs: 126 Rogers
    • Section 1: W 14:00 – 15:50
    • Section 2: F 16:00 – 17:50
  • Course Website:
    • TEACH website – http://classes.engr.oregonstate.edu/
lab instruction
Lab Instruction
  • Mr. Barath Palanisamy (Instructor)
    • E-mail: palanisb@onid.orst.edu
  • Ms. Negar Abolhassani (co-Instructor)
    • E-mail: abolhasn@onid.orst.edu
  • Steve Etringer (Technician)
    • E-mail: etringer@engr.orst.edu
  • Lab
    • 126 Rogers Hall
books materials
Books & Materials
  • Required Text:
    • Groover, M.P. (2006). Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing (3rd ed.). New York NY: John Wiley & Sons. 1040 pp. ISBN 0-471-74485-9.
  • Required Materials:
    • Engineering Problems Paper – 8-1/2" x 11", three hole drilled, ruled five squares/division, 50 pp. (approx.).
    • Scientific Calculator
    • Safety Glasses (Z-87 NIOSH) for lab
grading
Grading
  • Homework (6): 15%
  • Midterm: 25%
  • Final: 35%
  • Laboratory (9): 25%
learning outcomes
Learning Outcomes
  • State basic properties of materials and apply these properties to manufacturing process and product design.
  • Compare and contrast the design and production advantages of traditional mechanical manufacturing processes (casting, forming, machining, and joining).
  • Evaluate material-process-geometry relationships in manufacturing processes.
  • Differentiate advanced mechanical manufacturing processes e.g. micro-scale and nano-scale technologies.

IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes

expectations
Expectations
  • Due Dates & Late Assignments
    • Everything is due at the start of class – on scheduled date
    • Partial Credit for late work – turn in to 204 Rogers
      • Lose 10% of earned credit per day
  • Make-up Work & Absences – use memorandum format
    • Unforseeable – as soon as practicable
    • Foreseeable – as far in advance as possible
  • Grade Appeals – use memorandum format
  • Laboratory Participation and Safety
  • Special Needs Accommodation
  • Academic Integrity
introduction to materials processes
Introduction to Materials & Processes
  • Material-Geometry-Process Relationships
  • Manufacturing Materials
  • Manufacturing Processes
  • How do we characterize processes?
what is manufacturing
Manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties, and appearance of a starting material to make parts or products for a given applicationWhat is Manufacturing?
material process geometry relationships
Material-Process-Geometry Relationships

Function

Role of Prod Engr

Material

Geometry

Role of Mfg Engr

Process

IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes

complexity in manufacturing
Complexity in Manufacturing

Materials: 106

metals, ceramics, polymers, composites

Processes: 105

process conditions are ~ ∞

Properties: 102

applications are ~ ∞

purpose of manufacturing
Purpose of Manufacturing
  • Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater value by means of one or more processing and/or assembly operations
manufacturing everchanging
Manufacturing: Everchanging

Wilbur & Orville Wright, 1903

fabric, wood, steel

120 ft, 12 s, 400 kg

Boeing, 2003

titanium, aluminum

14,000 km,

400,000 kg, 14+ hours

tracking manufacturing problems
Tracking Manufacturing Problems

Exploding tires, 2004

Melamine in milk, 2008

Medicines, 2006

Toxic toys, 2007

transformations
Transformations

China over 2000 years

materials in manufacturing
Materials in Manufacturing
  • Most engineering materials can be classified into one of four basic categories:
    • Metals
    • Ceramics
    • Polymers
    • Composites
processing operations
Processing Operations
  • Three categories of processing operations:
    • Shaping operations - alter the geometry of the starting work material
    • Property‑enhancing operations - improve physical properties of the material without changing its shape
    • Surface processing operations - clean, treat, coat, or deposit material onto the exterior surface of the work
shaping four main categories
Shaping – Four Main Categories
  • Solidification Processes - starting material is a heated liquid that solidifies to form part geometry
  • Deformation Processes - starting material is a ductile solid that is deformed
  • Material Removal Processes - starting material is a ductile/brittle solid, from which material is removed
  • Assembly Processes - two or more separate parts are joined to form a new entity
solidification processes
Starting material is heated sufficiently to transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state

Examples: casting for metals, molding for plastics

Solidification Processes
deformation processes
Starting workpart is shaped by application of forces that exceed the yield strength of the material

Examples: (a) forging, (b) extrusion

Deformation Processes
material removal processes
Excess material removed from the starting workpiece so what remains is the desired geometry

Examples: machining such as turning, drilling, and milling; also grinding and nontraditional processes

Turning Drilling Milling

Material Removal Processes
assembly operations
Assembly Operations
  • Two or more separate parts are joined to form a new entity
  • Types of assembly operations:
    • Joining processes – create a permanent joint.
      • Examples: welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding
    • Mechanical assembly – fastening by mechanical methods
      • Examples: use of screws, bolts, nuts, other threaded fasteners; press fitting, expansion fits
property enhancing processes
Property‑Enhancing Processes
  • Performed to improve mechanical or physical properties of the work material
  • Part shape is not altered, except unintentionally
  • Examples:
    • Heat treatment of metals and glasses
    • Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics
surface processing
Surface Processing
  • Cleaning - chemical and mechanical processes to remove dirt, oil, and other contaminants from the surface
  • Surface treatments - mechanical working such as sand blasting, and physical processes like diffusion
  • Coating and thin film deposition - coating exterior surface of the workpart
  • Several surface processing operations used to fabricate integrated circuits
developing a manufacturing process
Developing a Manufacturing Process

1.

Understand Function/Geometry

Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,

magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2.

Properties

Identify candidate Material(s)

Material: structure, composition.

3.

Material

Identify required Processing

  • Processing: changes structure and overall shape
  • Material and Geometry compatibility
  • Other considerations
how do we characterize processes
How do we characterize processes?
  • Quality
    • Dimensional – bulk and surface
    • Properties – bulk and surface
  • Economics
    • Cycle time
    • Materials utilization
  • Flexibility
    • Tooling development
    • Setup time
    • Cycle time

IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes

dimensional quality
Dimensional Quality
  • Bulk
    • Tolerances
      • Bilateral, unilateral or limits
      • Size and location
    • Geometric tolerances – flatness, roundness, cylindricity, straightness, parallelism, perpendicularity, angularity, true position, etc.
  • Surface
    • Surface texture – roughness, waviness, lay

IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes

quality properties
Quality – properties
  • Defects
    • Inclusions, voids, porosity …
  • Microstructure
    • Grain size, residual stress, precipitate size, etc.
  • Surface integrity
    • Absorption, alloy depletion, cracks, craters, hardness changes, heat affected zones, inclusions, intergranular attacks, seems, pits, plastic deformation, recrystallization, residual stresses, selective etch …

IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes

waste in shaping processes
Waste in Shaping Processes
  • It is desirable to minimize waste and scrap in part shaping i.e. have high material utilization
    • Material removal processes tend to be wasteful in the unit operation, simply by the way they work
    • Casting and molding waste less material
  • Terminology:
    • Net shape processes - when most of the starting material is used and no subsequent machining is required to achieve final part geometry
    • Near net shape processes - when minimum amount of machining is required
comparing processes
Comparing Processes

IE 337: Materials & Manufacturing Processes

you should have learned today
You should have learned today:
  • The key design responsibility of a manufacturing engineer
  • Key categories of manufacturing materials
  • Key categories of manufacturing processes
    • How to compare them
    • materials-processes-geometry
  • IE 337: Got to work hard
    • tons of information, regular study habits
next class
Next Class
  • Metals

From Chapters 2 and 3