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HACCP and Food Safety

HACCP and Food Safety

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HACCP and Food Safety

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  1. HACCP and Food Safety Information for all SchoolFood Employees Sept 2006

  2. Table of Contents • Introduction • What is HACCP? • Why use HACCP? • Who is responsible for HAACP? • When is HACCP used? • How is HACCP learned? • HACCP Principles • Seven Steps of HACCP • The SchoolFood HACCP Program • Critical Control Points • Serving Safe Food • It Starts with You • Basic Biology • Types of Contaminants • Microbes 101 • FAT-TOM • Bacterial Growth • Contamination and Foodborne Illness • Overview • Biological Contamination • Chemical Contamination • Physical Contamination • Safe Employees • Overview • Uniform Review • Handwashing • Using Gloves • Thermometer Use • During Prep and Service • Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food • Headquarters' Role • Receiving Guidelines • Inspection of Items Received • Storing Safe Food • Overview • First In, First Out (FIFO) • Labeling and Dating • Equipment Temperatures • Expiration Dates • “Best If Used By” Guidelines

  3. Table of Contents • Preparing Safe Food • Overview • Temperature Review • Defrosting Safely • Hot Food Issues • Cold Food Issues • Satellite Food Issues • Cross Contamination • Storing Prepared Food Safely • Cleaning and Sanitizing • Preparing Solution • Red Bucket, Gray Bucket • Clean As You Go • Can Opener and Slicer • Integrated Pest Management • Overview • Storeroom Issues • Communication • HACCP Reviews • Overview • HACCP Review Form • HACCP and DoH Inspections

  4. Introduction What is HACCP? • Proven method used to ensure the safety of the foods we serve • Originally developed for NASA space flights • Systematic approach that ensures food safety by looking at all processes as food “flows” through our kitchens • Ordering • Receiving • Storage • Preparation and Holding • Service

  5. Introduction Why use HACCP? • It works!—Proven Industry Standard • It is mandated—SchoolFood must have procedures in place to demonstrate how we maintain and verify food safety • USDA Requirement • New York State Education Dept Requirement • New York City Department of Health

  6. Introduction Who is Responsible for HACCP? • Every SchoolFood employee • Each employee has an individual and team role • Correct issues immediately and inform coworkers • Seek guidance from the Manager and Cook-in-Charge

  7. Introduction When is HACCP Used? • At all times in our operations HACCP follows the flow of food through our kitchens • Receiving • Storage • Preparation • Service • Clean-up • When developing new recipes and procedures • HACCP principles guide development and implementation

  8. Introduction How is HACCP learned? • Training • Classroom Training • Training Centers • Application • During 120-day Probation period • HACCP Inspection reviews • Feedback • Ask questions

  9. Key Points Big Things to Remember Top three causes of food borne illness – we control the risk • Food Temperatures • Calibrate thermometers daily • Check food temperatures at preparation, holding, and serving • Cross Contamination • Defrost food properly • Keep stations clean • Use sanitizing solution between tasks • Poor Personal Hygiene • Wash Hands frequently • Use gloves

  10. Key Points Food Temperatures Keep food out of the Danger Zone at every stage of Production Protein Items Stored at proper temperatures Protein Items Cooked to Internal Temperature of 165°F Protein Items Held at Internal Temperature above 140°F Protein Items Served at Internal Temperature above 140°F Protein Items Cooledto Internal Temperature below 40°F within two hours

  11. HACCP Principles Seven Steps of HACCP • Assess the Hazards Review Operations • Identify Critical Control Points Where hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced • Set Standards Guidelines for all operations • Monitor Critical Control Points Verify proper procedures are being followed • Take Corrective Action Correct issues immediately • Keep Records Temperature and Production Records • Verify the System is Working HACCP Review Team to verify

  12. HACCP Principles The SchoolFood HACCP Program • SchoolFood integrates HACCP procedures into our daily practices • HACCP is “built into” our operations • Training Manuals provide direction and additional information • Be ready to implement new procedures • Based on real-world experience • Based on HACCP reviews • Based on new items and recipes

  13. HACCP Principles Critical Control Points • Points where there is a potential danger to food • Develop and implement a procedure to minimize the risk • CCP: Hot Food must be held at above 140°F • Procedure: • Monitor food temperatures during holding time • Thermometers calibrated for accurate readings

  14. Serving Safe Food It Starts With You • Understanding how important Food Safety is • Applying HACCP principles at work (and home) • Helping coworkers understand • Asking Questions • Following HACCP procedures • Wearing a clean uniform • Taking action • Working smart • Keeping customers safe

  15. Basic Biology Types of Contaminants • Bacteria: Causes most cases of food borne illness • Viruses: Focus on personal hygiene • Parasites: Need a host to survive • Fungi: spoilage microorganism Some contaminants “show” their danger Molds Sour Milk Some contaminants “hide” their danger Salmonella Hepatitis A

  16. Basic Biology Microbes 101 Food Borne Illness may result from Infection Pathogens grow in the intestines of someone who has eaten contaminated food: symptoms may take time to appear Intoxication Caused by eating food containing poisonous toxins that are not destroyed by cooking

  17. Basic Biology FAT-TOM Bacteria require the following to grow: • Food—Energy to multiply • Acidity—Proper pH level • Temperature—proper range for growth • Time—to multiply • Oxygen—Survival* • Moisture How do we control or limit the food bacteria need to grow?

  18. Basic Biology Bacterial Growth—Time • How Bacteria Grow over time • Multiplication • Bacteria will grow as long as conditions are right

  19. Basic Biology Bacterial Growth—Conditions • How Bacteria grow in good conditions • Growth Chart • Lag Phase: stable and preparing for growth • Log Phase: rapid growth • Stationary Phase: rate of death and growth are the same • Death Phase: More bacteria dying than growing Stationary Log Death Number of Bacteria Lag Time

  20. Basic Biology Bacterial Growth—Temperatures • How Bacteria Grow at Different Temperatures At 50°F At 95°F At 44°F Number of Salmonella Cells At 42°F 2 0 1 3 4 5 DAYS

  21. Contamination and Foodborne Illness Contamination and Foodborne Illness Biological contamination • Bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi Chemical contamination • Toxic metals, pesticides and chemicals Physical contamination • Foreign matter, staples, metal shavings

  22. Standard Operating Procedures • SOPs provide guidance on how to complete many tasks • Review posted SOPs and follow correct procedures

  23. Safe Employees Safe Employees • Safe food begins and ends with you • SchoolFood employees are on the front line • Work to provide safe food to your customers • Apply what you learn to your daily tasks • Adhere to SchoolFood practices and procedures • Ask questions if you are unsure of the proper procedure

  24. Safe Employees Uniform Review • Follow SchoolFood procedures • Wear a clean uniform daily • No nail tips or polish • Visible Jewelry • Wedding Band with no stones • Watch • Safe shoes • Restrain Hair • Hairnet worn hairline-to-hairline • SchoolFood Hat if all hair is restrained • Hairnet and Hat to restrain hair

  25. Safe Employees Handwashing How • Wet Hands using Hot water • Apply Soap • Lather and Wash for 20 seconds • Rinse • Dry with paper towels Wash Hands After: • Using restroom • Touching your hair or face • Eating or Smoking • Completing a task and before using new gloves • After touching any source of contamination

  26. Safe Employees Using Gloves Gloves protect the food, not the employee • Use gloves to avoid bare-hand contact with food during preparation and production • Wear gloves while serving food • Change gloves: • When moving from task to task • After touching your hair or face • After touching any source of contamination • Do not store gloves in pockets or apron

  27. Safe Employees Thermometer Use A Tool for Food Safety • Test and calibrate thermometers daily • Use “slush” mixture of ice and water • Place thermometer in mixture • Needle should read 32°F • Adjust if necessary • Retest if dropped

  28. Safe Employees During Prep and Service • Sanitizing Solution at all work stations • Clean as You Go • Clear, Clean, and sanitize work station between tasks • Follow temperature guidelines when preparing temperature-sensitive foods • Sandwiches • Hot Foods • Label and Date prep items and leftovers

  29. Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food • SchoolFood Food Technology Department sets specifications for our products • Working with manufacturers • Manufacturers monitor their food safety practices during production • Microbiological testing completed regularly • Receiving procedures continue the focus on safe food

  30. Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food Receiving Guidelines Apply Food Safety principles when receiving deliveries • Check temperatures of items • Frozen items must be received in a frozen state • Wet boxes signal the product has been defrosted • Ice crystals signal the product has been thawed and refrozen • Look for expiration dates • Return unsatisfactory products to vendor

  31. Purchasing and Receiving Safe Food Inspection of Items Received • Milk Temperatures • Production dates and expiration dates • USDA stamps • Open cases of fruits and vegetables • Notify Manager or Cook-in-Charge if you have questions

  32. Storing Safe Food Storing Safe Food • Store frozen and refrigerated products quickly • Date all products before stocking shelves • All food stored 6” above the floor on racks • Labels facing out • Monitor refrigerator and freezer temperatures daily • Utilize “Best If Used By” Guidelines

  33. Storing Safe Food FIFO • First In, First Out • Rotate stock to utilize the oldest product first • Label cases with delivery dates • mm/dd/yy • Use FIFO in all storage areas • Freezers • Refrigerators • Storerooms • Paper Storage

  34. Storing Safe Food Labeling and Dating • Label cases with delivery date and production date • Label individual cans if they are removed from the case • Ask Manager or Cook-in-Charge for help with some production dates • Julian Calendar • Use dates to monitor FIFO • Cover, Label, and Date all leftover products

  35. Storing Safe Food Equipment Temperatures Monitor daily • Freezers 0°F - −10°F • Refrigerators 36°F – 40°F • Milk Chests 36°F – 40°F • Warmers To hold food above 140°F • Opening and closing doors will affect internal temperature • Place equipment repair request if equipment is not working properly

  36. Storing Safe Food Expiration Dates • Expiration Date on package • Milk • Fresh Juices • DoD Produce • Yogurt • Cookies • Soda • Monitor these dates and take action • Notify the Manager or Cook-in-Charge if a product is approaching the expiration date

  37. Storing Safe Food “Best If Used By” Guidelines • Use production date to calculate shelf life • Periodic review of all products • Utilize products that are nearing their expiration date • Inform Manager and Cook-in-Charge • Ask questions!

  38. Preparing Safe Food Preparing Safe Food • Preparation is where our focus on safety “pays off” • Temperature Control • Monitor Internal Temperature • Monitor Holding Temperature • “Temperature Abuse” • Food held in Danger Zone • Failure to cook to internal temperature of 165°F • Failure to properly chill foods • Preparing meals too far in advance

  39. Preparing Safe Food Temperature Review • Cold Foods • Served and held at 40°F and below • Hot Foods • Cooked to an internal temperature of at least 165°F • Served and held at 140°F and above • Hot Foods cooled quickly for storage • Two hour window to safe temperatures • Wrap, label, date, refrigerate Cold Food – Hold and Serve at 40°F and below Cook to this temperature – 165°F Hot Food – Hold and Serve at 140°and above

  40. Preparing Safe Food Defrosting Safely • Defrost raw products on bottom shelf of refrigerator • Prevent cross contamination • Wash utensils and equipment between tasks • Standardized recipes provide item-specific instructions • Holding temperatures • Holding times

  41. Standardized Recipes • Each recipe classified for Food Safety Purposes • 1 • 2 • 3 • Follow HACCP and preparation instructions to maintain food safety

  42. Preparing Safe Food Hot Food Issues • Always use Preheated ovens • Batch Cook • Monitor Cooking Temperatures • Reheat once to over 165°F if temperature falls below 140°F • Evaluate items for service the following day • Wrap, Date, Refrigerate

  43. Preparing Safe Food Cold Food Issues • Use Ice Packs and Cold Wells to maintain temperatures below 40°F • Monitor Temperatures during production • Cold Wells and Salad Bars must have all spaces covered to be effective

  44. Preparing Safe Food Satellite Food Issues Satellite Meal Issues • Temperature • Verify temperatures before pick-up by courier • Time • Limit time between preparation and consumption • Menu • Certain items identified for Satellite use • Quantity • Check for proper production amounts

  45. Preparing Safe Food Cross Contamination Transfer of bacteria from one product to the other Prevent cross contamination: • Create “barriers” between food products • Do not mix food from different batches • Defrost raw meat on bottom shelf in refrigerator • Use gloves—no bare-hand contact with food • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize

  46. Preparing Safe Food Storing Prepared Food Safely • Cool product as quickly as possible • Transfer to shallow pans • Place in refrigerator • Place in Freezer • On Ice Packs • In Ice Water bath • Stir contents frequently • Monitor temperatures • Drop to 70°F within 2 hours • Drop to 40°F within an additional 4 hours • Wrap, Date, and Label • Do not crowd refrigerator • Evaluate the following day for service • Reheat to over 165°F only once

  47. Cleaning and Sanitizing Cleaning and Sanitizing Bleach Solution • 1 cap bleach to 1 gallon cool water • Bleach is “killed” by hot water • Immerse for at least one minute • Allow to air dry • Use paper towel to dry if needed • Change solution after 2 hours or if it becomes cloudy Quaternary Solution • 1 QuixPlus Towel in 1 gallon cool water • Change solution after 2 hours or if it becomes cloudy

  48. Cleaning and Sanitizing Cleaning and Sanitizing Buckets • Red Buckets for Sanitizing Solution • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize daily • Grey Bucket • Half Soapy Hot Water for Washing • Half Hot Water for Rinsing

  49. Cleaning and Sanitizing Clean As You Go • “CAYGO” • Keep your station clear as you work • Wash, Rinse, Sanitize between tasks • Prevent work from piling up • Work Clean • Better Organization

  50. Cleaning and Sanitizing Can Opener and Slicer • Breeding ground for bacteria • Wash, Rinse, and Sanitize between each use • Small details have a big impact Question: What could happen?