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Food Safety & The Importance of Temperature Control. Winston Industries Research & Fundamental Series presents Continuing Enrichment Series 2 "Food Safety in School Foodservice” Jill Conklin, School Industry Specialist. Understanding the importance of Food Safety. What is food safety?

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food safety the importance of temperature control

Food Safety &The Importance of Temperature Control

Winston Industries

Research & Fundamental Series

presents

Continuing Enrichment Series 2

"Food Safety in School Foodservice”

Jill Conklin, School Industry Specialist

understanding the importance of food safety
Understanding the importance of Food Safety
  • What is food safety?
    • Protection of our food supply
    • Prevention from the ground to the plate
  • Why should we pay attention?
    • Health & Well-being
      • Effects on children, elderly, suppressed immune systems
    • Cost & financial loss
    • Personal & professional reputation
    • Morale & core ethics of operation
understanding foodborne illness it s contributors
Understanding Foodborne Illness & it’s Contributors
  • What is Foodborne Illness?
    • Factors
      • Host air, soil, water, food
      • Favorable conditions: FAT TOM
    • Cause
      • Bacteria, toxins, parasites,viruses, chemical contaminants
      • Potentially hazardous foods - PH
      • Cross Contamination
      • Personal Hygiene
      • Abuse of Time & Temperature
understanding foodborne illness is preventable
Develop a Team

Foodservice Staff

School Personnel

Students

Community

Industry

Develop a Plan

HACCP

Education

Challenges

Solutions

Resources

Federal agencies

State & Local Agencies

Education Centers

Understanding Foodborne Illness is Preventable!

How to address Food Safety

steps for success team finding solutions for your school foodservice program
Steps for Success - TeamFinding solutions for your school foodservice program

A Team Approach

Roles & Responsibility

  • Industry
    • Taking an active role
    • Understanding & addressing the School Market
    • Research & Design of Products
    • Building relationships and resources
  • School foodservice staff
    • Understanding trends & technology today
    • Matching the needs of your operation with your food and equipment manufacturers
    • Becoming educated and becoming the educator
    • Implementation
steps for success haccp develop a plan
Steps for Success - HACCP Develop a Plan
  • HACCP - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points
    • Documentation of a foods flow & all Critical Areas & Points for contamination
    • Includes a food flow through: receiving, storage, preparation, cooking, holding, cooling & re-heating
    • system of checks & balances
steps for success haccp seven steps
Steps for Success - HACCP Seven Steps
  • Assess hazards
    • contamination,
    • improper : cooking, holding, cooling, re-heating
    • personal hygiene & sanitation
  • Identify Critical Control Points & Areas
  • Establish regulatory procedures
  • Monitor procedures & assign responsibility
  • Take immediate Action - Address & Correct the problem
  • Record - develop a policy & procedure manual, written logs, flow charts
  • Verification - Check the system is working. Define staff roles & responsibilities. Listen, Gather feedback & organize
steps for success education getting the facts
Steps for Success - EducationGetting the Facts
  • Top 3 Hazards of Foodborne iIlness:
    • Abuse of time & temperature
    • Poor Hygiene
    • Cross Contamination
steps for success education personal hygiene
Steps for Success - EducationPersonal Hygiene
  • Uniform maintenance
    • Cleanliness & Safety
  • General practice
    • Bathe daily, clean hair & nails
    • Keep wounds covered
  • Wash hands regularly -Bacteria thrives on the hands, skin, eyes, noes, mouth
      • Wash hands thoroughly for 20 seconds under warm water with soap
  • Use Gloves when handling ready to eat foods and when a new task is performed
    • Gloves are not a supplement for hand washing. They must be discarded and hands washed to prevent cross contamination!
steps for success education cross contamination
Steps for Success - EducationCross Contamination
  • Clean
    • handling, preparing, serving foods
    • handling, preparing raw meat, poultry, seafood & fish
    • using the lavatory, cleaning & trash removal
  • Separate
    • use different cutting boards & utensils to prepare raw , cooked & potentially hazardous foods
  • Cook - Understand the current Lethality logs for potentially hazardous foods, temperature danger zone, appropriate cooling & re-heating times,check temperatures regularly
  • Chill - Defrost & refrigerate foods appropriately. Don’t clutter! Refrigerators & Freezers need air to circulate.

See www.fightbac.org for more information

steps for success education time temperature
Steps for Success - EducationTime & Temperature
  • Relationship
    • Understanding Appendix A & Lethality Logs for Beef (cooked & cured), Poultry, Pork, Seafood & Fish)
      • Relative hold time or minimum processing time for protein after a minimum temperature is reached
      • lethality's are achieved once internal temperatures reach and exceed 158 degrees F
      • a relative humidity of 90% or above must be reached for at least 25 percent of the total cooking time or as prescribed by the lethality log
      • Bacteria conditioned to multiply at exceeding rates when foods are cook/ held between 50- 130 degrees F for times greater than six hours
steps for success education time temperature12
Steps for Success - Education Time & Temperature
  • Temperature Danger Zone (TDZ)
    • Microbial growth increases rapidly between the TDZ
      • 41 degrees F - 135 degrees F
    • Harmful organisms grow slowly below 41 degrees F and can be destroyed above 135 degrees F when applied with a time & temperature ratio
    • Foods should never be left in the TDZ longer than a cumulative of four hours. If so, the food should be discarded. The time food can be in the TDZ includes all Critical Areas: receiving, storage, cooking, holding, re-heating, and cooling
steps for success education time temperature13
Steps for Success - Education Time & Temperature
  • When cooling foods: temperature should reach 135- 70 degrees F or below within 2 hours and 70-41 degrees F within 4 additional hours. If a food product does not reach 70 degrees F within 2 hours the food must be immediately reheated to 165 degrees F for 15 seconds. If the food does not reach this time/temperature it should be discarded. If the food returns to the TDZ again, it should be discarded.
  • Keep record of your temperature control
steps for success education
Steps for Success - Education

Tools for Precise Time &Temperature Control

  • Equipment
    • Thermometers
      • Accurate control of temperature
      • Monitor by keeping time & temperature logs
    • Foodservice equipment
      • Accurate control of temperature & time through technology
steps for success education thermometers
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Thermy
    • National consumer education campaign for FSIS & USDA
    • It’s Safe to Bite When the Temperature is Right!
      • Color - poor indicator
      • Rely on the actual thermometer reading to ensure food has reached a safe internal temperature for serving
steps for success education thermometers16
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Why?
    • Best, most reliable way to ensure safety and to determine “doneness” & “just-cooked” quality are determined
    • Thermometers are used to verify temperatures and harmful microorganisms have been destroyed
    • Safe Temperatures means Safe Foods, Safe Food means Healthy Bodies & Happy Kids!
steps for success education thermometers17
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Thermocouple (2-5 second reading)
    • probe at 1/4 inch
    • fastest reading
    • measures temperatures in thick & thin foods
    • can be calibrated
    • digital display
  • Thermistor ( 10 sec reading)
    • probe at 1/2 inch
    • offers a quick reading
    • measures temperatures in thick & thin foods
    • some can be calibrated
    • digital display
steps for success education thermometers18
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Bimetal Instant Read (15-20 seconds)
    • probe 2-21/2 inch
    • temperature taken by average on the stem
    • difficult to accurately measure thin foods
    • calibrated
    • dial read, some with magnifying read
  • Liquid filled (1-2 minutes)
    • probe 2 inches or more
    • can be left on food product during cook/hold
    • does not measure thin foods
    • heat conduction causes inaccuracy, it is recommended multiple readings are taken in the same product but in different areas
steps for success education thermometers19
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Oven Cord Thermometer (5-10 sec reading)
    • probe at 1/2 inch
    • can be used in & out of oven
    • designed for use in food product during cook/hold cycle
    • can not be calibrated
    • digital display (often needs battery pack)
steps for success education thermometers20
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Use & Care
    • Always check the manufacturer’s instructions prior to use
    • Wash with hot soapy water and sanitize as you would any other kitchen utensil to minimize cross contamination
    • Remember safety - keep all sharp objects pointed downward and covered
steps for success education thermometers21
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Where to place Thermometer
    • Temperatures for all meat products should be placed midway into the body of the product.
    • Keep away from bone, gristle & fat (this can cause inaccurate readings)
    • Thin Foods: insert the probe sideways about 2-3 inches towards the center of the product. (Thermocouple & Thermistor produce most accurate reading)
    • Poultry should always be checked by inserting the probe into the thickest section or thigh, including whole or fabricated parts.
    • Casseroles should always be checked in the very center or thickest section of the product
steps for success education thermometers22
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Calibration
    • Ice Water Method
      • Fill a glass or beaker with crushed ice. Add tap water to the top of the glass and then stir the contents well.
      • Insert the thermometer into the center of the glass without touching bottom or sides of the glass
      • Insert approximately 2 1/2 inches into the ice water bath
      • Wait at least 30 seconds for a reading
      • Turn the calibration nut so the pointer or display reads 32 degrees F
steps for success education thermometers23
Steps for Success - EducationThermometers
  • Boiling Water Method
    • Bring a pot of water to a full boil
    • Insert the thermometer into the center of the pot without touching bottom or sides of the pot
    • Insert approximately 2 1/2 inches into the boiling water
    • Wait at least 30 seconds for a reading
    • Turn the calibration nut so the pointer or display reads 212 degrees F

Remember water boils at a lower temperature in high altitudes, check with your local agency for instructions

steps for success education foodservice equipment
Steps for Success - EducationFoodservice Equipment
  • Critical Control Products for Critical Control Points
    • Critical Control Points: cooking, holding, re-heating & serving are areas extremely susceptible to Time & Temperature Abuse
    • Equipment Products that are manufactured for cooking, holding, re-therming and serving purposes should be engineered to control the time & temperature
    • Equipment should precisely control the temperature of all foods, especially potentially hazardous foods
    • Proteins are potentially hazardous foods. They are also the cost centers of many foodservice operations.
    • Equipment should be designed to assist the operator in managing proteins during critical points. This term can be called Safe Protein Management. Such management in design of equipment will address food safety needs
steps for success education foodservice equipment procurement
Steps for Success - Education Foodservice Equipment Procurement
  • What to consider
    • Type of heat system
    • Efficiency of heat transfer
    • Efficiency relation to Time & Temperature
    • Precise control of Internal Temperature of food product
    • Precise control of food product texture
    • Recording device & measurement for HACCP control
    • Equipment designed to meet all regulatory requirements by the FSIS, HHS, USDA & Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
    • Meets the minimum requirements for holding guidelines by FDA, considering lethality logs & RH
    • Meets requirements for all time, temperature & RH, Safety measured in Use & Care Manual
steps for success education understanding foodservice equipment design
Steps for Success - EducationUnderstanding Foodservice Equipment Design

Single Heat System - Dry Air heat transfer

  • Equipment offered insulated or with out, & built with stainless or aluminum body
  • Minimal control of texture provided on product for only short period of time with diminishing quality
  • No control over internal food temperature, only by application of thermometer
  • consistent yield loss in product due to overheating & excess drying of food product
  • Nutritional content diminished over time
  • Aesthetic quality diminished over time
  • Energy usage is inefficient - increase in electrical usage over extended time period in order to maintain total air temperature
  • unable to maintain RH in any equipment using air as a sole means of heat transfer (Often a manufacturer will include a water basin to increase humidity in the equipment chamber. This often produces one of two results: the air heat will evaporate the water bath, the water bath will cause a substantial increase in moisture disallowing crisp product to be held inside the equipment)
  • Equipment costs are often lower at time of purchase, but can be costly over the long haul
steps for success education understanding foodservice equipment design27
Steps for Success - EducationUnderstanding Foodservice Equipment Design

Dual Heat System - Vapor (or latent) heat & Air heat

  • Equipment is insulated with Stainless steel body
  • Equipment designed with a water evaporator. This evaporator is heated to control the food’s rate of evaporation & internal temperature. See Vapor Heat Transfer
  • Equipment also has air heaters controlled independently from the evaporator. Theses heaters can be controlled to elevate the air temperature above the food temperature.
  • Equipment utilizes microprocessor-driven controls, allowing for independent control of food temperature and food texture.
  • Dual heat system needs no calibration, has quick cabinet response & recovery time.
  • Equipment allows the operator to input desired end internal temperature, desired texture, and cook time or the use of pre-programmed software.
steps for success education understanding foodservice equipment design28
Steps for Success - EducationUnderstanding Foodservice Equipment Design
  • Equipment design & technology offers efficient form of heat transfer, precision in temperature, RH, food quality and taste
  • Nutritional content is maintained
  • Aesthetic quality is maintained for long holding periods
  • Food texture set with a minimum differential above the food temperature allows for long holding of moist food product
  • Food texture set with a maximum differential above the food temperature allows for long holding of crisp products
  • Equipment Products often cost more initially but save energy costs, maintenance costs, labor costs & food costs
steps for success education understanding foodservice equipment design29
Steps for Success - EducationUnderstanding Foodservice Equipment Design
  • Vapor Heat Transfer
    • All food is comprised of water, therefore may be described as a water body
    • When heat is applied to food it behaves the same as heat applied to water
    • Water has a vapor pressure. When two water or wet bodies are enclosed in a chamber there properties will become same. This occurs through evaporative cooling.
    • In a dual heat system, water vapor condenses onto a food product. The food product’s internal temperature will rise and become the same (with a differential 1-2 degrees F) as the evaporator. The operator precisely sets the evaporator temperature in turn setting the internal temperature of the food product.
    • This type of dual heat system is a patented technology called CVap - an acronym for Controlled Vapor.
steps for success education understanding foodservice equipment design30
Steps for Success - EducationUnderstanding Foodservice Equipment Design
  • HACCP Controls
    • Manufacturers of equipment are now designing controls to monitor & record safe protein management, often measured by a probe inserted into a protein.
    • Equipment should be offered with HACCP ready software, using NAFEM Data Protocol (NDP) to monitor compliance with HACCP guidelines
    • Systems are set up for manual retrieval of data or through a PC software systems where data is stored and accessed internally or externally from the operation
  • Equipment Products should be used in conjunction with Thermometers to ensure the safest food supply
steps for success education choosing the right equipment
Steps for Success - EducationChoosing the Right Equipment
  • Benefits
    • Produce Healthy Safe Food
    • Maintain Nutritional Value
    • Maintain Food at a “Just-Cooked” Quality
    • Increase customer appreciation & participation
    • Allow flexibility in menu design
    • Increase total food yield & improve food costs
    • Increase job efficiency & improve labor costs
    • Increase energy efficiency & improve energy consumption
steps for success resources
Steps for Success Resources
  • US Department of Agriculture (USDA) & Food Safety Inspection Services (FSIS)
    • www.usda.gov
  • Centers for Disease Control & Prevention
    • www.foodsafeschools.org
    • www.fightbac.org
  • National Foodservice Management Institute
    • www.nfsmi.org
  • Food & Nutrition Services & Team Nutrition
    • www.fns.usda.gov
  • School Nutrition Association
    • www.schoolnutrition.org
  • Institute of Food Technologists
    • www.ift.org
steps for success attitude
Steps for SuccessAttitude
  • Stay Positive
  • Encourage a Team Approach
  • Set Realistic Goals & Objectives
  • Utilize your resources
  • Utilize Industry for support
understanding our role the importance of food safety
Understanding Our Role & the Importance of Food Safety

Winston Industries extends it’s gratitude to the hard working School Foodservice Professional across the Nation.

We Promise to continue to research and develop resources to assist you in meeting the challenges of foodservice today.

We are dedicated to the National Food Safety Campaign.

Thank You