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  1. By : Punithavathy a/p Palanisamy MIT, 2007 PGC070002 Click me

  2. GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING This glossary provides you with the description and real life examples of the concepts / theories. Click here to glossary index Main paradigms in Psychology of Learning

  3. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRST UV W XYZ INDEX Click on the alphabet

  4. Click on the word ATTENTION ASSOCIATIONISM ACCOMMODATION ASSIMILATION ACTIVE LEARNING ADVANCE ORGANIZER ADDIE MODEL ATTRIBUTION THEORY Go back to index

  5. ATTENTION Definition / Description • Attention is the first component of observational learning. This learning process occurs when individual observe and imitate other behavior. But the individual cant learn much by observation when they don't pay attention. • Paying more attention strengthens the formation of memory. (information processing) Real life examples • How to make the person pay attention to your presentation???? • personal appearance – outfit, gesture, style • Materials – attractive images, show videos • Participation – make audience participate in discussion Reference Boeree, G. (1998). Personality Theories Albert Bandura. Retrieved 20 August, 2007, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html Go back to index Go back to index A

  6. ASSOCIATIONISM (Plato, Aristotle) Definition / Description & Examples • Associationism is the theory that the mind is composed of elements. • Although the original idea can be found in Plato, it is Aristotle who gets the credit for elaborating on it.  Aristotle counted four laws of association when he examined the processes of remembrance and recall: • The law of contiguity.  Things or events that occur close to each other in space or time tend to get linked together in the mind.  If you think of a cup, you may think of a saucer; if you think of making coffee, you may then think of drinking that coffee. • The law of frequency.  The more often two things or events are linked, the more powerful will be that association.  If you have an eclair with your coffee every day, and have done so for the last twenty years, the association will be strong indeed -- and you will be fat. Continue… Go back to index Go back to index A

  7. ASSOCIATIONISM • The law of similarity.  If two things are similar, the thought of one will tend to trigger the thought of the other.  If you think of one twin, it is hard not to think of the other.  If you recollect one birthday, you may find yourself thinking about others as well. • The law of contrast.  On the other hand, seeing or recalling something may also trigger the recollection of something completely opposite.  If you think of the tallest person you know, you may suddenly recall the shortest one as well.  Reference • Boeree, G. (2000). Psychology: The beginnings. Retrieved 19 July, 2007, from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/psychbeginnings.html Go back to index Go back to index A Associatinism

  8. ACCOMMODATION(Piaget’s (1969) process of cognitive development) Definition / Description • It is the change in existing knowledge that results from introduction of new information. • When an existing schemes or operations must be modified to new account for a new experience, accommodation has occurred . Real life examples • Yesterday my mother taught me how to cook spaghetti. Today I tried and eventually invented a new recipe by adding mushroom to the tomato sauce. Reference Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. USA: Pearson Education, p.198 Go back to index Go back to index A

  9. ACTIVE LEARNING Definition / Description • Do more than simply listen to a lecture. • Active learning is a type of instruction which some teachers employ to involve students during the learning process. • Teacher can conduct activities which promote active learning such as: • Debate • Case-studies • Role play More examples on active learning http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsal.html Continue

  10. ACTIVE LEARNING Real life examples • Teacher shows a video clip about poverty in Africa countries and prompt students to analyse what they watch among group members and write a reflective essay about the clip. Reference • McKinney, K. (n.d). Active Learning. Center for teaching, learning and technology: Illinois University. Retrieved 23 August, 2007, from http://www.teachtech.ilstu.edu/additional/tips/newActive.php Go back to index Go back to index A

  11. ASSIMILATION(Piaget’s (1969) process of cognitive development) Definition / Description • Assimilation occurs when a person perceives new objects or events in terms of existing schemas or operations. Real life examples • I saw my mother baking chocolate cheese cake. I know what ingredients needed to do the cake. Reference Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. USA: Pearson Education Go back to index Go back to index A

  12. ADVANCE ORGANIZER (Ausubel, 1978) Definition / Description & Examples • The concept of advance organizer was proposed by the psychologist David Ausubel. • Ausubel suggests that advance organizers might foster meaningful learning by prompting the student regarding pre-existing main concepts that are already in the student's cognitive structure, and by providing a context of general concepts the student can incorporate progressively the details. (Ausubel, 1978 in Driscoll, 2005) • Examples of Advance Organizer http://www.glnd.k12.va.us/resources/graphicalorganizers/clustermap.png • More about advance organizers http://www.glnd.k12.va.us/resources/graphicalorganizers/ Reference • Mayer, R. (2003) Learning and Instruction. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. • Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. USA: Pearson Education Go back to index Go back to index A

  13. Assess and analyze needs, Design instruction and presentations Develop materials Implement activities and courses Evaluate participant progress and instructional materials effectiveness ADDIE MODEL Definition / Description The ADDIE model is a generic, systematic approach to the instructional design process, which provides instructional designers with a framework in order to make sure that their instructional products are effective Reference Malachowski, (2002). ADDIE Based Five-Step Method towards Instructional Design. Retrieved 19 August, 2002, from http://fog.ccsf.cc.ca.us/~mmalacho/OnLine/ADDIE.html Go back to index Go back to index A

  14. ATTRIBUTION THEORY (Weiner, 1974) Definition / Description • Concerned with how individuals interpret events and how this relates to their thinking and behavior (TIP Theories). • When one succeeds, one attributes successes internally (”my own skill”). When a rival succeeds, one tends to credit external (e.g. luck). When one fails or makes mistakes, we will more likely use external attribution, attributing causes to situational factors rather than blaming ourselves. • Three-stage process underlies an attribution: • behavior must be observed/perceived • behavior must be determined to be intentional • behavior attributed to internal or external causes Real life examples • I was selected in the interview for the job because of my high compatibility and experience.  internal attribution • It because of my luck , I was selected in the interview for the  external attribution Continue

  15. ATTRIBUTION THEORY • More about attribution theory http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edpsybook/Edpsy5/Edpsy5_attribution.htm Reference • Kearsley, G. (2007) Attribution theory. The Theory Into Practice Database. Retrieved 24 August, from, http://tip.psychology.org/weiner.html Go back to index Go back to index A

  16. Click on the word BEHAVIOUR BLOOMS TAXONOMY BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT Go back to index

  17. BEHAVIOUR Definition / Description & Examples • Behaviour ≡ Human action • 2 classes of behaviour: • Respondent behaviour • Studied by Pavlaov in his classical conditioning experiment. • Behaviour that is elicited involuntarily in reaction to a stimulus. • Eg: dog salivate for food, baby gives reaction to a loud noise. • Operent behaviour • Skinner examined this behaviour. • Operent Behaviour is simply emitted by an organism. • Eg: student raise hands in class when teacher ask questions Reference • Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. USA: Pearson Education, p.34. Go back to index Go back to index B

  18. BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT Definition / Description • Actions and conscious inactions to • enhance the person or a group of people, choose behaviors which are productive, and socially acceptable, and • eliminate or weaken negative behaviour (Shea & WALKER, 1991). • The behaviour is strengthen or weaken by using principles of reinforcement Six Principles of Behaviour Management Behavior Management: Getting to the Bottom of Social Skills Deficits Reference • Walker, J.E., & Shea, T.M. (1991). Behavior management: A practical approach for educators (5th ed.). New York: Macmillan Go back to index Go back to index B

  19. BLOOMS TAXONOMY Definition / Description • Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives • 1950s- developed by Benjamin Bloom • Means of expressing qualitatively different kinds of thinking • Provides a way to organise thinking skills into six levels, from the most basic to the higher order levels of thinking Continue

  20. BLOOMS TAXONOMY Reference • Krumme, G. (2005). Major categories in the taxonomy of educational objectives. Retrieved 16, August, 2007 from http://faculty.washington.edu/krumme/guides/bloom.htm • Wyatt, A.T. (n.d). Blooms Taxonomy. Retrieved 16, August, 2007 from http://cs1.mcm.edu/~awyatt/csc3315/bloom.htm Go back to index Go back to index B

  21. Chunking Classical Conditioning Cognition Connectionism Cognitive dissonance Cognitive Load Theory Conditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus Collaborative Learning Cognitive Development Theory Go back to index

  22. CHUNKING (Miller, 1956) Definition / Description • Process of combining small pieces of information in several categories of larger unit. • Miller's "chunking" concept describes the capacity of short term memory (1956). This theory states that a person can remember seven plus or minus two items in their short term memory (eg: telephone number), • A chunk is the unit of information grouped in working memory that determines the amount of information a person can handle at any given time. Real life examples • The lecturers used to chunk information obtained from books or other materials and put in power point slides. Reference • Golbeck, J. (2002). Cognitive load and memory theories. Retrieved 18, August, 2007 from http://www.cs.umd.edu/class/fall2002/cmsc838s/tichi/printer/memory.html • Kearsley, G. Information Processing Theory. The Theory Into Practice (TIP). The Theory Into Practice Database. Retrieved 24 August, from, http://tip.psychology.org/miller.html Go back to index Go back to index C

  23. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING(Pavlov) Definition / Description • Technique used in behavioral training. • A neutral stimulus is paired with one that is known to produce a response until the neutral stimulus alone begins to elicit the response • Pavlov’s dog experiment • In the diagram of Pavlov experiment the smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus and salivation is the unconditioned response. Now when the dog smelled food, also heard the sound of a ringging bell. While the bell unrelated to the smell of the food, if the sound of the bell was paired multiple times with the smell, the sound would eventually trigger the salivation which is conditioned response. In this case, the sound of the bell is the conditioned stimulus. Reference • Santrock, J.W. (2007). Educational Psychology, 3rd ed. NY: McGraw Hill International. Go back to index Go back to index C Extinction

  24. Source: http://www.abacon.com/slavin/images/t47.gif Back

  25. COGNITION Definition / Description • Refer to the mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension, including thinking, knowing, remembering, judging, and problem solving. • These are higher-level functions of the brain which encompass language, imagination, perception, and planning. Reference • H. Ashcraft, Mark. (2000). Cognition. Prentice Hall, p. 10. Go back to index Go back to index C

  26. CONDITIONED STIMULUS Definition / Description • The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. Reference Wagner, K.V. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved 12 August, 2007, from http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/condstim.htm Go back to index Go back to index C

  27. CONDITIONED RESPONSE Definition / Description • The conditioned stimulus is previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a conditioned response. Reference Wagner, K.V. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved 12 August, 2007, from http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/condstim.htm Go back to index Go back to index C

  28. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE Festinger,1957 Definition / Description • Discomfort felt at a discrepancy between what you already know or believe, and new information or interpretation. • Induces a “drive state” – need to avoid or reduce dissonance by changing beliefs, attitudes or behaviors so they are perceived as consistent. Real life example • One area of my life that I have experienced cognitive dissonance is in university. I came from a small, middle class town where everyone was very similar. When I first arrived I found that the people I met were nothing like my "normal" friends from my hometown. Some of them are from rich families, from cities and my first impression was they are snobbish, spoiled bred. However when I start to mix around with them, I decided to change my attitude towards people. I became more open to people and ideas. I slowly removed the labels I had used before. Reference • Kearsley, G. Cognitive dissonance . The Theory Into Practice (TIP) Database. Retrieved 24 August, from, http://tip.psychology.org/festinge.html Go back to index Go back to index C

  29. COGNITIVE LOAD THEORYJ.Sweller Definition / Description • Cognitive load – load that performing a particular task imposes on the working memory. • Optimum learning occurs in humans when the load on working memory is kept to a minimum to best facilitate the changes in long term memory. • Cognitive load theory is concerned with techniques for reducing working memory load in order to facilitate the changes in long term memory associated with schema acquisition. Real life example • I would prefer learning tasks which are presented in a simple manner. For example Mathematic problems. When I am learning a new topic, I would expect the teacher start with easy problems and move to harder ones. Reference • Kearsley, G. Cognitive load theory. The Theory Into Practice (TIP) Database. Retrieved 24 August, from, http://tip.psychology.org/sweller.html • Wkipedia. Retrieved 24 August, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_load Go back to index Go back to index C

  30. CONNECTIONISMThorndike (1874-1949) Definition / Description • Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. • Consists of three primary laws: • law of effect - responses to a situation which are followed by a rewarding state of affairs will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation. Learning is strengthened when accompanied by positive feedback that generates a satisfying feeling; learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. • law of readiness - a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked. Presenting learning objectives, explain purpose of the learning activity, and present relevant knowledge will make learners approach learning with more eagerness. • law of exercise - connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued. Reference • Kearsley, G. Cognitive load theory. The Theory Into Practice (TIP) Database. Retrieved 24 August, from, http://tip.psychology.org/thorn.html Go back to index Go back to index C

  31. COLLABORATIVE LEARNING Definition / Description • Learners engage in a common task whereby each individual depends on and is accountable for the shared outcome. • There is a sharing of authority and acceptance of responsibility among group members for the groups actions. Real life example • The class FROG of PXGT 6102 is a best example of collaborative learning. We share our reflections, ideas in class in the discussion forum. And also give constructive feedback to each other. Reference • Panithz, T. (1996). A Definition of Collaborative vs Cooperative Learning. Retrieved 13 August, 2007 from http://www.city.londonmet.ac.uk/deliberations/collab.learning/pan 2.html Go back to index Go back to index C

  32. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTPiaget Definition / Description • Asserts that we construct our cognitive abilities through self-motivated action in the world. • There are 4 stages of cognitive development: Continue

  33. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTPiaget • Sensorimotor stage • Preoperational stage • Concrete operational stage • Formal Operational Stage Reference • Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. USA: Pearson Education, p.194. Go back to index Go back to index C

  34. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE Definition / Description • The concrete operational stage begins around age seven and continues until approximately age eleven. • During this time, children gain a better understanding of mental operations. They can perform a number of logic mental operations on objects that are present to them. • Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts. • Able to view things from another's perspective (even if they think incorrectly). Reference • Wagner, K.V. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved 12 August, 2007, from http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/condstim.htm • Wkipedia. Retrieved 2 Sptember, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_development Go back to index Go back to index C Cognitive development

  35. Dual Coding Theory Discovery Learning Drive Reduction Theory Go back to index

  36. DISCOVERY LEARNINGBruner, 1961 Definition / Description • Inquiry-based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned. • Instead of being 'told' the content by the teacher, it is expected that the student will have to explore examples and from them 'discover' the principles or concepts which are to be learned. Real life example • The task of producing this glossary is a good example of discovery learning. Apart from the what I learned, I searched myself for terms in psychology. I relate the terms with my real life activities as examples. Reference • Discovery learning. Learning Theories.com. Retrieved 21 August, 2007, from http://www.learningtheories.com/discovery-learning-bruner.html Go back to index Go back to index D

  37. DUAL CODING THEORYPaivio, 1986 Definition / Description • Paivio attempts to focus on verbal and non-verbal processing. Paivio (1986 in Kearseley, 2005) states: "Human cognition is unique in that it has become specialized for dealing simultaneously with language and with nonverbal objects and events. • DTC model assumes that information is processed and stored in memory by two separate, but interconnected systems – one visual, the other verbal. • Recall/recognition is enhanced by presenting information in both visual and verbal form. Real life example • In class PXGT 6102, My lecturer, Firuz use graphic organizers / features, in her presentation. This grab my attention to listen to her lecture. Reference • Kearsley, G. Dual coding theory. The Theory Into Practice (TIP) Database. Retrieved 12 September, from, http://tip.psychology.org/paivio.html Go back to index Go back to index D

  38. DRIVE REDUCTION THEORYHull Definition / Description • Behaviour occurs in response to internal drives such as hunger, interest and discomfort. • A person who is hungry, for instance, eats in order to reduce the tension that hunger produces. All human behavior could be attributed to the pleasure gained when these drive-induced tensions were reduced. The reduction in drive serves as the reinforcer. Real life example • My lecturer told us that we need glossary for the exam. It drives me to finish up glossary before exam. Reference • Kearsley, G. Drive reduction theory. The Theory Into Practice (TIP) Database. Retrieved 12 September, from, http://tip.psychology.org/hull.html Go back to index Go back to index D

  39. Elaboration theory Egocentrism Encoding Episodic Memory Equilibrium Emotional Intelligence Explicit Theory Extinction Go back to index

  40. ELABORATION THEORY Definition / Description • Instruction should be organized in increasing order of complexity for optimal learning. • According to Reigeluth (1999), Elaboration Theory has the following values: • It values a sequence of instruction that is as holistic as possible, to foster meaning-making and motivation • It allows learners to make many scope and sequence decisions on their own during the learning process • It is an approach that facilitates rapid prototyping in the instructional development process • It integrates viable approaches to scope and sequence into a coherent design theory Reference • Reigeluth, C.M. (1999). The elaboration theory: Guidance for scope and sequence decisions. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory. (Volume II). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc Go back to index Go back to index E

  41. EGOCENRISMPiaget Definition / Description • According to Jean Piaget and his theory of cognitive development, egocentrism is an inability on the part of a child in the preoperational stage of development to any point of view other than their own. Real life example • 4 year old girl Suzy gets a phone call from her father, who asks her if Mommy is home. Instead of saying, "yes", little Suzy nods her head. Her father, hearing no response, asks again, to which little Suzy again nods her head. What little Suzy fails to appreciate is that her father is unable to see her nodding. Little Suzy can only take her own perspective - "I am nodding my head yes, why do you keep asking me this question?" Reference • Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. USA: Pearson Education, p.194. Go back to index Go back to index E

  42. ENCODING Definition / Description • Any information which we sense and subsequently attempt to process, store, and later retrieve must be brought in through one of the senses and then transformed into some form that our bodies and minds understand. • The process of getting into the memory system (breaking the information down into a form we understand ) for storage and later retrieval is encoding. (information processing model) Reference • Alleydog.com. Retrieved 23 August, 2007, from http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.cfm?term=Encoding Go back to index Go back to index E

  43. EPISODIC MEMORY Definition / Description & Example • Episodic memory is the type of long-term memory in which we store memories of personal experiences that are tied to particular times and places. • This type of memory is often what comprises eye-witness testimony and is especially susceptible to subsequent events like questioning, reading the newspaper, talking to others about the event, etc. • For example, if you are having a conversation with a friend and you tell your friend, "last night I went to a 9:00 movie..." you are recalling information stored in episodic memory. Reference • Alleydog.com. Retrieved 23 August, 2007, from http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.cfm?term=Episodic%20Memory Go back to index Go back to index E

  44. EQUILIBRIUMPiaget Definition / Description • According to Piaget, equilibrium is the master developmental process, encompassing both accommodation and assimilation. When the kid say this is the correct answer, it marks that he or she achieved equilibrium. • However some kids may aware of their shortcomings of their thinking, and this experience create disequilibrium where the kid adopt more sophisticated mode of thought. Real life example • When a teacher gives exam consists of objective questions where there only one correct answer among the options. When a kid got correct for the question it create equilibrium. Reference • Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. USA: Pearson Education, p.199. Go back to index Go back to index E

  45. EXPLICIT MEMORY Definition / Description & Example • Explicit memory, also known as declarative memory is a type of long-term memory in which we store memories of fact. • explicit memory is divided further into semantic and episodic memories (please look those up for complete definitions). • Examples of explicit memories: • When Malaysia celebrated its first independence day? • Who was our first prime minister? Reference • Wkipedia. Retrieved 2 Sptember, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explicit_memory Go back to index Go back to index E

  46. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCEGoleman Definition / Description • The awareness of and ability to manage one's emotions in a healthy and productive manner. • The term encompasses the following five characteristics and abilities: • Self-awareness--knowing your emotions, recognizing feelings as they occur, and discriminating between them • Mood management--handling feelings so they're relevant to the current situation and you react appropriately • Self-motivation--"gathering up" your feelings and directing yourself towards a goal, despite self-doubt, inertia, and impulsiveness • Empathy--recognizing feelings in others and tuning into their verbal and nonverbal cues • Managing relationships--handling interpersonal interaction, conflict resolution, and negotiations Reference • Funderstanding. Retrieved 24 August, 2007, from http://www.funderstanding.com/eq.cfm Go back to index Go back to index E

  47. EXTINCTION Definition / Description • The reduction and eventual disappearance of a learned or conditioned response after it is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus-response chain. • In classical conditioning this results from the unconditioned stimulus NOT occurring after the conditioned stimulus is presented over time. • Eg: if the smell of food (the unconditioned stimulus) had been paired with the sound of a whistle (the conditioned stimulus), it would eventually come to evoke the conditioned response of hunger. However, if the unconditioned stimulus (the smell of food) were no longer paired with the conditioned stimulus (the whistle), eventually the conditioned response (hunger) would disappear. • In operant conditioning it results from some response by the organism no longer being reinforced • Eg: you keep getting your dog to sit on command, but you stop giving it a treat or any other type of reinforcement. Over time, the dog may not sit every time you give the command). Reference • Psychology.com. Retrieved 2 Sept, 2007, from http://psychology.about.com/od/eindex/g/extinction.htm Go back to index Go back to index E

  48. Formal Operational stage Go back to index

  49. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE(Piaget) Definition / Description • In Piaget's stages of cognitive development, a period between age twelve to adulthood when people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts. • Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning also emerge during this stage. • They can also reason hypothetically and often develop concern over social issues Reference • Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. USA: Pearson Education, p.197. Go back to index

  50. Gestalt Theory Genetic Epistemology Go back to index