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Rethinking Diversity. Faculty Resource Network National Symposium San Juan, Puerto Rico November 2006. Approaches to Diversity on the College Campus (2002): Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges

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Rethinking Diversity


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    1. Rethinking Diversity Faculty Resource Network National Symposium San Juan, Puerto Rico November 2006

    2. Approaches to Diversity on the College Campus (2002): Qualitative, national, interviews of 75 practitioners in research universities and 4-year colleges Millennial Student Project (Spring 2005): Campus-based, quantitative and qualitative, student focused Millennial Student Project (Fall 2005): Campus-based, longitudinal, quantitative and qualitative, student focused Background

    3. Focus on access “Hostile Climate” Model Cultural deficit approach Primarily for minority students Focus on cultural adjustment & support Historical Approaches to Diversity in Higher Education

    4. Cultural centers Summer Bridge programs and Freshman Orientation Support of student organizations Mini-University Services approach - recruitment, financial aid, tutoring, advising, etc. specifically for minority students Typical Diversity Programs, Historically

    5. Trends Impacting on Student Views of Diversity Shifting demographics Persistence of “isms” Influence of popular media Support of diversity by industry Challenges to affirmative action

    6. Shifting Demographics

    7. African-American ↑ 36.9% Asian-American ↑ 53.7% Native American ↑ 35.0% Caucasian students ↓ 4.6% (Latino not included in ACE report) American Council on Education “Minorities in Higher Education: Twenty-First Annual Status Report, 2005” Changes in enrollment of students, ages 18-24

    8. White Black or African Am. American Indian & Alaska Native American Indian or Alaska Native Both American Indian & Alaska Native Asian Indian Chinese or Filipino or Japanese Korean or Vietnamese Other Asian Category Two or more Asian Category Native Hawaiian or Samoan Guamania or Chamorro Other Pacific Islander Two or more Native Hawaiian Mexican or Puerto Rican or Cuban Other Hispanic or Latino Not Hispanic or Latino Demographic shift cont…1990-8 race categories2000-34 race categories (US Census Bureau)

    9. Millennial Study Finding: 10% of students identified as bi- or multi-racial. That’s the 4th highest identification group after Caucasian, Latino and Asian. ACE 2005 Report: A new category of students whose race or ethnicity is unknown accounted for 5.5% of all degrees conferred during 2003-3. National trend of Caucasian students declining to disclose. Bi- and Multi- Racial Students

    10. Changing Perceptions of Race… Today’s Student Tomorrow’s Student Tiger Woods: “Cablasian” Nigerian, Irish, African American, Native American, Russian Jewish, Polish Jewish

    11. Persistence of “isms”

    12. “…an altercation sparked by intolerance of their sexual orientation…” Gays frequently assaulted on 4th Ave. Arizona Daily Wildcat, October 6, 2006 “Two weeks ago, a member of the fraternity reported to UAPD two swastikas were drawn on the interior walls sometime during a weekend social gathering. Alpha Epsilon Pi's members are predominately Jewish.” Arizona Daily Wildcat, February 8, 2005 “Students in the pictures are wearing sideways baseball caps, exposed underwear, bandanas, and other accessories. A male student in one of the pictures is holding a brown paper bag with a leaking bottle inside.” Ghetto partyChicago Maroon, October 25, 2005 “Students who wore blackface to an off-campus party sparked such an outcry on campus that officials at Whitman College canceled classes Thursday so students and faculty could attend a diversity symposium.” Fox News, November 9, 2006

    13. “Yes, I am gay and Indian and define myself as androgynous. I need diversity to survive. I stick out as a sore thumb and I need awareness. I need knowledge, sensitivity and acceptance so that I am not bashed up.” UA Millennial Student Project, 2005 Student Voice: Is Diversity Important?

    14. Influence of Popular Media

    15. Lost Everybody Hates Chris Will & Grace

    16. 2006 NPR Story on Lost: “economic sense continues to drive a commitment to diversity. All the networks are looking for younger viewers -- and to get them, new shows will have to reflect their world.” Blind Casting: "That really opened the door for us to go to our casting director and say, 'We have all these characters, bring us people of all nationalities and ages, and we will cast the best actor…'" Increased Diversity on Television

    17. Support of Diversity by Industry

    18. Fortune 500 Companies Focus on Diversity Wal-Mart-Our Commitment to People: Diversityand Responsible Employment Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is the leading private employer of emerging groups in the United States. More than 160,000 African American associates and more than 105,000 Hispanic associates work for Wal-Mart Stores, SAM'S CLUBS and Wal-Mart's logistics facilities nationwide Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. received the 2002 Ron Brown Award, the highest Presidential Award recognizing outstanding achievement in employee relations and community initiatives The National Hispana Leadership Institute recognized Wal-Mart with the 2002 National Leadership Award for its support of leadership and development programs for Latinas The NAACP presented Wal-Mart with the NAACP 2000 Pacesetter Award for corporate leadership The National Action Network (NAN) presented Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. with the 2002 Community Commitment Corporate Award in recognition of community involvement and diversity practices Wal-Mart received the Hispanic National Bar Association (HNBA) 2002 Corporate Partner of the Year Award for its consistent support and best practices in the area of diversity The Organization of Chinese Americans (OCA) appointed Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. to its 2002 Corporate Advisory Board Wal-Mart received the prestigious 2001 and 2002 Billion-Dollar Roundtable Award for spending more than $1 billion with women and minority-owned suppliers The American Minority Supplier Development Council named Wal-Mart as the 2001 Minority Business Advocate of the Year Hispanic Business Magazine named Wal-Mart one of the Top 25 Diversity Recruitment Programs in 2001 for its aggressive program to hire and promote Latinos and Latinas Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. received a Blue Ribbon Board Award from the organization Catalyst for having two women on its board of directors. Catalyst is a nationally established organization that works with the business sector to advance women ...recognizes that managing diversity includes race and gender as well as broader dimensions like age, family status, religion, sexual orientation, level of education, physical abilities, military status, union represented/non-represented, years of service, language and many others. General Motors' Policy on Diversity (Editor's Note: The following is borrowed from General Motors' website, pertaining to the corporation's policy on diversity) Throughout GM, the Diversity Initiative is defined as the process of creating and maintaining an environment that naturally enables GM employees, dealers, suppliers and communities to fully contribute in pursuit of total customer enthusiasm. GM believes that diversity is the collective mixture of similarities and differences, and recognizes that managing diversity includes race and gender as well as broader dimensions like age, family status, religion, sexual orientation, level of education, physical abilities, military status, union represented/non-represented, years of service, language and many others. Workplace Diversity GM's greatest asset is the quality and capabilities of its diverse workforce. Managing diversity allows GM to reach the full potential of its employees and contribute to theirs and the company's success. GM seeks to create an environment that optimizes the contributions of this workforce, and recognizes that it is essential for that workforce to reflect both the marketplace and its customers. Diversity in the workplace and in GM's business relationships help enhance its effectiveness in the global marketplace. Diversity Training. Moving towards company-wide diversity training, a number of GM units within the U.S. have required training in their divisions. New salaried employees attend an orientation that includes a diversity segment taught by diversity professionals. All hourly and salaried employees have had sexual harassment training, and diversity training is scheduled for hourly employees throughout 2000. In 1999, GM added a narrative piece in the Talent Review Process regarding development of employees. All managers are expected to meet or exceed their diversity goals set through the Affirmative Action Program and initiatives and efforts. Executive representation goals have been set for each GM Sector and performance and targets are expected to be fully satisfied. Additional information on GM diversity management and related initiatives can be found at www.gm.com . ExxonMobil’s- Why Focus on Diversity? Because it is the right thing to do for our: Business...Achieving peak performance from all of our operational, technological and financial resources depends on realizing the full potential from all of our human resources. People...Employees are naturally more productive working in an environment that encourages a wide range of ideas and perspectives — an environment where opportunities to grow and excel apply to everyone. Communities...Neighbors, whether corporate or families, care for each other. We seek to assist and support those communities where we live and work. Global Diversity Essential to Success

    19. Challenges to Affirmative Action

    20. 5-4 to uphold the University of Michigan's preferences for minorities who apply to its law school. 6-3 vote, struck down a point system used by Michigan's undergraduate program. Affirmative Action June 22, 2003

    21. From the issue dated March 19, 2004 http://chronicle.com/weekly/v50/i28/28a01701.htm Not Just for Minority Students Anymore Fearing charges of discrimination, colleges open minority scholarships and programs to students of all races By PETER SCHMIDT

    22. BELOIT COLLEGE MINDSET LIST® FOR THE CLASS OF 2008 • Desi Arnaz, Orson Welles, Roy Orbison, Ted Bundy, Ayatollah • Khomeini, and Cary Grant  have always been dead. • “Heeeere’s Johnny!” is a scary greeting from Jack Nicholson, not • a warm welcome from Ed McMahon. • The Energizer bunny has always been going, and going, and • going. • Photographs have always been processed in an hour or less. • The U.S.  has always been a Prozac nation. • They have always enjoyed the comfort of pleather. • Harry has always known Sally.

    23. What are Millennial Students’ perceptions and attitudes with regard to diversity? How do the perceptions and attitudes of the Millennial Student compare across traditional measures of diversity – race/ethnicity, gender, class, ability, and religion? What elements do Millennial Students ascribe to diversity? The Millennial Project Research Questions

    24. The Video: Students Speak About Diversity

    25. Online Survey (ASSET, Seton Hall) & Interviews Sampling Strategy Stratified random sample Over-sampled students of color Contacted 4,500 full-time, classified undergraduates enrolled in fall 2005 Weekly emails sent to students over five weeks Response Rate Survey: N = 487 (11%) 60 Interviews Conducted 10 Students Followed in Documentary Limitations: small sample, self-selection, politically-charged topic Methods

    26. 65% Female 11% with Disabilities 8% GLBTQ 14% First Generation (neither parent attended college) 37% STEM Majors 49% Ethnic Minorities 10% Bi-or Multi- Ethnic Sample Characteristics

    27. “African-American” “Human” “Tan” “Native American/Egyptian” “Euro-mutt with a dash of Native American” “Half Egyptian, quarter Scottish, eighth French, eighth English” “Jamexican-American” In terms of race/ethnicity, I identify as:

    28. Education: 22% Friends/Peers: 8% Parents: 7% Media: 5% Travel: 5% (Most frequent answers, multiple answers possible) Influences on Beliefs about Diversity

    29. Percent of students reporting some or most of friends were of different: Sexual Orientation: 33% Racial/Ethnic Background: 79% Gender: 94% Disability: 21% Religion: 86% Entering Characteristics: Diverse Friendships

    30. Percent of students expecting to encounter diversity in: University Leadership: 84% Faculty: 87% Staff: 86% Student Leadership: 83% Student Body: 88% Residence Hall: 80% Entering Characteristics: Expectations of Diversity in College

    31. Support for Services for Targeted Populations Percent of students reporting support for services • Students with Disabilities: 79% • Low SES Students: 76% • International Students: 75% • Latino/as: 70% • Native Americans: 69% • First Generation Students: 69% • African Americans: 69%

    32. Support for Services for Targeted Populations Percent of students reporting support for services • Multi-ethnic: 67% • Asian/Pacific Islanders: 67% • Women: 64% • GLBTQ: 62% • Men: 55% • Caucasians: 53%

    33. Groups Most Supportive of Services for Targeted Populations (Chi Square) • Females more supportive of services than males for • all populations • Ethnic minorities more supportive of services than • Caucasians for some populations • First generation students less supportive of services • for Caucasians than non first generation students • No significant differences for students with • disabilities, GLBTQ, and STEM majors

    34. Depth of Knowledge Casual Cognizant/Critical Cognitive Dissonance Critical Postmodern Postmodern Active Engagement Positive Passive Engagement Level of Openness Not Engaged Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Negative Minority Stressor/ Meritocracy Stigmatization Cognitive Dissonance Dynamic Diversity Paradigm Model (DDPM)

    35. Meritocratic Perspective: 3.1% Depth of Knowledge Superficial Cognizant/Critical Cognitive Dissonance Critical Postmodern Postmodern Positive Level of Openness Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Negative Minority Stressor/ Meritocratic Stigmatization Cognitive Dissonance

    36. Meritocratic Perspective “I define diversity as a measure of the differences among peoples’ past life experiences. To specify, I do not consider a black person diverse from a white person if they both grew up in a wealthy suburb with loving parents and an easy overall life, despite their superficial racial differences.” - White, Catholic, Male, Sophomore, Social Sciences Major

    37. Stigmatization Perspective: 1.6% Depth of Knowledge Superficial Cognizant/Critical Cognitive Dissonance Critical Postmodern Postmodern Positive Level of Openness Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Negative Minority Stressor/ Meritocratic Stigmatization Cognitive Dissonance

    38. Stigmatization Perspective • “While appreciating and recognizing cultural heritage and differences is an admirable goal, I feel that it creates more divisions [than] it breaks down. Forced ‘diversity’ inherently segments a population, and segmentation leads to resentment and bigotry.” • White, Agnostic, Male, Sophomore, Computer Information Sciences Major

    39. Postmodern Perspective: 59.7% Depth of Knowledge Superficial Cognizant/Critical Cognitive Dissonance Critical Postmodern Postmodern Positive Level of Openness Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Negative Minority Stressor/ Meritocratic Stigmatization Cognitive Dissonance

    40. Postmodern Perspective “I think that it is very important for co-existence and communication that we try to understand where people are coming from and how they communicate with others as well as understand how our own up-bringing has [affected] our views.” - Latina, Catholic, Senior, Social Sciences Major

    41. Critical Postmodern Perspective: 9.9% Depth of Knowledge Superficial Cognizant/Critical Cognitive Dissonance Critical Postmodern Postmodern Positive Level of Openness Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Negative Minority Stressor/ Meritocratic Stigmatization Cognitive Dissonance

    42. Critical Postmodern Perspective • “Diversity is a mixture of the physical and cultural characteristics that combine to distinguish individuals. Diversity is responsible for cultural differences and distinct ways [of] living. It is important that people are different to provide a constant supply of challenging ideas. Without differences, there is no basis of comparison and people are slaves to their homogenous ways of thinking. Diversity supplies unfamiliarity that causes people to stretch into [beyond] their own ways of thinking.” • Bi-Racial/Ethnic, Spiritual, Female, Sophomore, • Social Sciences Major

    43. Millennials are accustomed to diversity and expect their college environments to be diverse. Students define diversity broadly and express multiple identities, extending well beyond the traditional focus on race and ethnicity. Students’ desire to connect to identity-based programming may be specific to generational status and/or history of the identity group. Conclusions About Millennials

    44. While they may have had a high exposure to diversity, Millennials don’t necessarily connect it to social justice issues. Students support services for individual groups to a varying degree, but many are hesitant to impose this value on others. Conclusions, continued

    45. Rethink our diversity paradigms, goals and programs – make sure we are meeting students where they are. Engage faculty, staff and students in conversations about generational differences in their approaches to diversity. Understand that students relate to multiple identities and that those are in constant flux depending on environment. Create opportunities for students to engage in critical discourse on diversity and social justice education. Implications for Educators/Administrators

    46. Lynette Cook Francis Assistant Vice President Multicultural Affairs and Student Success (520) 626-1664 lynettec@email.arizona.edu Contact Information Melissa D. Ousley, Ph.D. Research Analyst Multicultural Affairs and Student Success (520) 626-2885 mousley@email.arizona.edu

    47. Project Web Site: http://mass.arizona.edu/millennial/