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Parts of the plant and their functions

Parts of the plant and their functions

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Parts of the plant and their functions

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  1. Parts of the plant and their functions

  2. Importance of plants • Without plants life on earth would not exist

  3. Plants: • Primary source of food for people and animals • Produce oxygen • help to keep us cool • renew the air

  4. Plants: • slow wind speed • provide a home for wildlife • beautify surroundings • perfume the air • furnish building materials and fuel

  5. Parts of a plant • *Four basic parts • *leaves • *stems • *roots • *flowers

  6. Leaves • the food factory of the plant • *produce the food used by the plant or stored for later use

  7. Shape and size of leaves • vary among plants • used for identification of plants

  8. Leaf arrangement • *alternate • *opposite • *whorled • arranged in a circle around the stem

  9. External leaf structure • *petiole - leaf stalk • *leaf blade (leaf) • has veins • forms structural framework of the leaf

  10. Midrib • *large center vein from which all other leaf veins extend

  11. Margins • *edges of leaves • assists in plant identification

  12. Internal leaf structure • *epidermis • skin of the leaf • single layer of cells • protects leaf from loss of too much moisture

  13. Guard Cells • open and close the small pore on the underside of the leaf

  14. Stomates • *allow the plant to breathe and transpire • *give off moisture

  15. Chloroplasts • *contain chlorophyll • *located inside the cells

  16. Photosynthesis • process by which CO2 and H2O in the presence of light are converted to sugar and oxygen

  17. Chemical formula • 6CO2 + 6H2O • -----> in reaction with sunlight and chlorophyll ------> • C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2

  18. food • *manufactured in the leaves moves downward through the stem to the roots • used by the plant • stored in stem or root and leaf in the form of sugar, starch or protein.

  19. Respiration • *plants respire 24 hours a day • consume O2 and give off CO2 • plants produce more O2 through ps. Than they consume during respiration and growth.

  20. Stems • *have two main functions • *movement of water and minerals from the roots upward and movement of manufactured food down

  21. Stem functions • *support of leaves and reproductive structures

  22. Stems also • *used for food storage and reproduction of plants involving cuttings • *Green stems manufacture food just as leaves do

  23. Internal Stem Structure • *phloem- bark, carries manufactured foods down. • *Xylem- wood, carries water and minerals up. • *Cambium- separates the 2 and produces all new cells. • *Characteristic of dicots

  24. Internal Stem Structure • *dicot- dicotyledon, a plant with 2 seed leaves

  25. Monocot • *Monocotyledon - a plant with one seed leaf. • *Have vascular bundles, contain both xylem and phloem in each small bundle

  26. Monocot • stems have no cambium • cells enlarge to create size of mature stem

  27. Economic Importance • food • building materials

  28. Roots • *Usually underground • *functions: • *anchor plant and hold upright • *absorb water and minerals form soil and conduct to stem • *store food, & propagation

  29. Root Structure • internal • similar to stems • older roots have xylem, phloem and cambian

  30. external • root cap • produces continuous supply of new cells • protects roots as they push through soil

  31. Structure • *root hairs • *absorb moisture and minerals • *small roots

  32. Functions other than water and mineral absorption • *cash crops for food • carrots • beets • radishes • sweet potatoes • propagation

  33. Type of root systems • *fibrous- grasses • *easier transplanting • *shorter, smaller, more compact • tap root- carrot • *longer and fewer roots

  34. REVIEW

  35. Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds • pollination- color of flower attracts insects to fertilize flower • beginning of fruit and seed formation • fruits and seed are attractive to birds who eat and spread seeds. • Reproduces plant • some seeds carried on animals coats

  36. Parts of the Flower • differ in size, shape, and color, some basic parts • sepal • green leaf-like part, covers and protects bud before opening

  37. Petals • are actually leaves • usually bright colors to attract pollinating insects.

  38. Parts of the Flower • stamens • male part of flower • has two parts • filament-stalk

  39. Anther • anther- sac-like structure on top of filament, contains pollen

  40. Parts of the Flower • Pistil - female part • in the center of flower • has three parts

  41. Pistil • three parts • stigma - top - sticky • style - tube leading from stigma to ovary

  42. Ovary • egg cells develop here • grows to become fruit or seedcoat

  43. Types of Flowers • complete • contains 4 main parts

  44. Incomplete • does not have all 4 main parts

  45. Perfect • has stamens and pistils

  46. Imperfect • lacks stamens or pistils

  47. Types of Flowers • monoecious • stamens and pistils are found in separate flowers on the same plant • ex: Corn

  48. dioecious • male or staminate flowers found on one plant, female or pistilate flowers on another plant • ex: holly