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Mendel’s Laws of Heredity. Why we look the way we look. What is heredity ?. The passing on of characteristics (traits) from parents to offspring Genetics is the study of heredity. Mendel used peas. They reproduce sexually

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mendel s laws of heredity

Mendel’s Laws of Heredity

Why we look the way we look...

what is heredity
What is heredity?
  • The passing on of characteristics (traits) from parents to offspring
  • Genetics is the study of heredity
mendel used peas
Mendel used peas...
  • They reproduce sexually
  • They have two distinct, male and female, sex cells called gametes
  • Their traits are easy to isolate
mendel crossed them
Mendel crossed them
  • Fertilization - the uniting of male and female gametes
  • Cross - combining gametes from parents with different traits
  • What did Mendel cross?
  • What are traits?
  • What are gametes?
  • What is fertilization?
  • What is heredity?
  • What is genetics?
what did mendel find
What Did Mendel Find?
  • He discovered different laws and rules that explain factors affecting heredity.
rule of unit factors
Rule of Unit Factors
  • Each organism has two alleles for each trait
      • Alleles - different forms of the same gene
      • Genes - located on chromosomes, they control how an organism develops
rule of dominance
Rule of Dominance
  • The trait that is observed in the offspring is the dominant trait (uppercase)
  • The trait that disappears in the offspring is the recessive trait (lowercase)
law of segregation
Law of Segregation
  • The two alleles for a trait must separate when gametes are formed
  • A parent randomly passesonly oneallele for each trait to each offspring
law of independent assortment
Law of Independent Assortment
  • The genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.
  • How many alleles are there for each trait?
  • What is an allele?
  • How many alleles does a parent pass on to each offspring for each trait
  • What do we call the trait that is observed?
  • What case(upper or lower) is it written in?
  • What about the one that disappears?
  • What case is it written in?
phenotype genotype
Phenotype & Genotype
  • Phenotype - the way an organism looks
      • red hair or brown hair
  • genotype - the gene combination of an organism
      • AA or Aa or aa
heterozygous homozygous
Heterozygous & Homozygous
  • Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa)
  • Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa)
dihybrid vs monohybrid
Dihybrid vs Monohybrid
  • Dihybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in two traits (AAEE with aaee)
  • Monohybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in only one trait (AA with aa)
  • What is the phenotype?
  • What is the genotype?
  • What is homozygous?
  • What is heterozygous?
  • What is monohybrid crossing?