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Lowering Mechanical Loss in Fused Silica Optics with Annealing. Steve Penn Alexander Ageev , Garilynn Billingsley, David Crooks, Andri Gretersson, Gregg Harry, Jim Hough, Sheila Rowan, David Shoemaker, Peter Saulson, Peter Sneddon, Phil Willems .

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lowering mechanical loss in fused silica optics with annealing

Lowering Mechanical Loss in Fused Silica Optics with Annealing

Steve Penn

Alexander Ageev, Garilynn Billingsley, David Crooks, Andri Gretersson, Gregg Harry, Jim Hough, Sheila Rowan, David Shoemaker, Peter Saulson, Peter Sneddon, Phil Willems

LIGO-G040160-00-Z

sapphire vs fused silica
High Q, ≈ 200 million (Willems, MSU, Glasgow)

Higher Young’s Modulus

Higher Density

Higher Thermal Conductivity

Higher Optical Absorption

High Thermoelastic Loss

Less History as an Optical Material

Expensive

High Q (but not consistantly)

200 million Ageev/Penn - rods

120 million, Willems - LIGO I optic

Lower Young’s Modulus

Lower Density

Lower Thermal Conductivity

Lower Optical Absorption

Negligible Thermoelastic Loss

Extensive History as an Optical Material

Expensive

Sapphire vs. Fused Silica

LIGO-G040160-00-Z

brief history of silica research
Brief History of Silica Research
  • Research has been conducted over the past several years to understand the fundamental loss mechanism in fused silica and produce extremely low loss FS optics suitable for Advanced LIGO. (Syracuse, Glasgow, Caltech, MSU, HWS)
  • Experiments have been performed on fiber/rod samples over wide range of sizes reveal a clear surface loss dependence. Loss appears to be entirely in the surface.
  • For each sample, loss also increases with frequency.
  • Slowly “annealing” samples can lower loss, but not below the surface loss limit.

BOB

SAMPLE

EXCITER

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surface loss the effect of annealing
Surface Loss & the Effect of Annealing

SURFACE LOSS

8 mm fiber

Q = 80 million, before annealing

Q = 200 million, after annealing

LIGO Test mass, if surface loss limited

Q (predicted) = 2 billion

LIGO-G040160-00-Z

annealing benefits challenges
Annealing: Benefits & Challenges
  • Annealing can greatly lower the mechanical loss for samples above the surface loss limit, including superpolished samples.
  • Loss reduction from annealing depends on the peak temperature and the cool down rate. This parameter space should be explored, but doing so with high Q samples is very time consuming.
  • Low temperature anneals (600° C) yield large decrease in loss (≈ 10) for superpolished samples. (Standard Anneal temp. ≈ 11,000° C)
  • Cool down rate is geometry dependent. We may be able to increase rate. Otherwise the annealing could be quite long for Adv. LIGO masses.
  • Annealing could change surface figure, optical absorption, or silicate bonding to support structure.

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slide7

Q Dependence on Silica Type?

S312SV

S312

Preliminary measurements

show a factor 3 difference

between S312 & S312SV

LIGO-G040160-00-Z

differences between s312 s312sv
Differences between S312 & S312SV
  • Heraeus has provided limited insight into the differences between the Suprasil families: (S1, S2, S3), (S311, S312, S313), (S311SV, S312SV, S313SV).
    • Manufacturing processes differ for each family (no details).
    • No significant composition difference except for OH content.
    • OH level affects the fictive temperature of the glass such that lowering OH raises the fictive temperature.
    • Annealing temperature scales with fictive temperature. Heraeus suggests that a change in annealing temperature from 950 C upto 1050 C could be significant for S312SV.

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the abbreviated silica research plan
The Abbreviated Silica Research Plan
  • Samples are in limited supply for our tight timescale and tight budget. We need to leapfrog using the few existing extra samples.
  • “Optimize” annealing procedure on mid-sized uncoated optics by testing an annealing curve scaled by sample geometry, x 1/3
  • Test Peak temperature by lowering peak temp by 200 C for 1 run.
  • Changes in surface figure is presently ignored though it must be known before we can anneal larger optics that we do not wish to damage.
  • The geometries of optics gathered for testing will allow test of predicted surface loss limit, frequency dependence and bulk Q.

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slide10

Theories of Silica Loss

  • Surface Loss
    • Water adsorption (Braginsky, many others)
    • Alkali absorption (Marx and Sivertsen)
    • Degenerate States for Surface Oxygen Bonds (Bartenev)
    • Microcracking
  • Additional Loss
    • Additional loss for V/S > 1 mm to be stress-induced loss arising from larger thermal gradients during manufacturing. Annealing shown to decrease of stress-related loss (Numata, Lunin, Harry, Penn)
  • Bulk loss
    • Bulk loss at 400 Hz estimated as 2.5 x 10-9 (Q = 4 x 108) (Wiedersich, et al., Roessler group)
      • Extrapolation down from the GHz regime.
      • Loss arises from Asymmetric double-well potential,

LIGO-G040160-00-Z

slide11

Estimating Silica Loss

  • Surface Loss
    • “Constant” Surface loss:
  • Additional Loss: stress, adsorbed impurities/water
    • Anneal has been shown to bring loss to or within “a few” of surface limit
    • At large geometries this loss is very low < 5e-9
  • Bulk loss
    • Loss
    • Bulk loss extrapolated from GHz regime down to LIGO frequencies, estimated as 1–2.5 x 10-9 (Q = 0.4–1 x 109) (Wiedersich, Roessler et al.,)

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