slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Authors: Theresa A. Kirchner Kiran Karande Edward P. Markowski Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA, USA PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Authors: Theresa A. Kirchner Kiran Karande Edward P. Markowski Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA, USA

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46

Authors: Theresa A. Kirchner Kiran Karande Edward P. Markowski Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA, USA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 171 Views
  • Uploaded on

Perceived Organizational Business Continuity Readiness: Scale Development and Validation. Authors: Theresa A. Kirchner Kiran Karande Edward P. Markowski Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA, USA. March 17, 2006. What is business continuity ?.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Authors: Theresa A. Kirchner Kiran Karande Edward P. Markowski Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA, USA


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Perceived Organizational

Business Continuity Readiness:

Scale Development and Validation

Authors:

Theresa A. Kirchner

Kiran Karande

Edward P. Markowski

Old Dominion University

Norfolk, VA, USA

March 17, 2006

what is business continuity
What is business continuity ?
  • It provides protection for the mission, vision, and values of the organization and mitigates the effects of disasters or severe disruptions on that mission, vision, and value set. (DRII / DRJ Glossary)
  • It facilitates continued performance of essential business functions / operations and the ongoing protection of vital company assets. (BCI Glossary)
  • It includes all measures and technologies that an organization implements to combat any potential significant disruption to its normal operations, competitive advantage, and ability to prove regulatory compliance. (Price)
  • It allows organizations to reasonably strive for continuous availability of processes, systems, and networks. (IBM Global Services)
related definitions
Related definitions
  • Business Continuity Planning (BCP)

is a process of developing advance arrangements and procedures that enable an organization to respond to an event in such a manner that critical business functions continue with planned levels of interruption or essential change. (Disaster Recovery Institute / Disaster Recovery Journal Glossary 2004)

    • Rooted in a crisis management approach (Shrivastave 1987, Smith 1990, Pauchant and Mitroff 1992)
    • Broader in scope than more traditional “disaster recovery” approaches, which emphasize after-the-fact recovery of information technology hardware / software systems (Doswell 2000)
    • Focuses on business processes and assets (Elliott et al. 2002)
related definitions cont
Related definitions (cont)
  • Crisis Management is an approach that:
    • recognizes the social and technical characteristics of business interruptions
    • emphasizes the contribution that managers and employees make to the resolution of interruptions
    • assumes that managers may build resilience into business interruptions through processes and changes to operating norms and practices
    • assumes that organizations themselves may play a major role in ‘incubating the potential for failure
    • recognizes that, if managed properly, interruptions do not inevitably result in crises
    • acknowledges the impact, potential or realized, of interruptions upon a wide range of stakeholders

(Elliott et al. 2002)

example business continuity planning
Example – Business Continuity Planning

Salomon Smith Barney (part of Citigroup) in the context of the 9-11 disaster:

  • A pre-established virtual command center immediately began meeting to provide managerial direction.
  • SSB lost equipment in NY; immediately switched to an alternate hot site in NJ already staffed with employees.
  • 2,000 employees were displaced due to the collapse at Seven World Trade Center. Based on predefined requirements, business continuity plans, and previous exercises, all employees were relocated to temporary work facilities and/or permanent locations.
  • Post-9/11 focus is on data replication, recovery of non-critical functions, plan currency, and crisis management planning (evacuation, communication).
practical examples
Practical Examples
  • Network outage
  • “Sick building”
  • Earthquake / fire / flood / hurricane / snowstorm
  • WTO / World Bank protest situation
  • Election-year party convention
  • Major IT or operational system implementation
  • Hacker / intruder situation
  • Violence in the workplace
  • Terrorist attack (or threat)
  • Gas line explosion
literature review
Literature Review

Analysis of recent national and international surveys to develop insights about the current status of business continuity and mitigation of major business interruptions

Cerullo and Cerullo (2004), “Business Continuity Planning: A Comprehensive Approach”

Examination of business continuity in the post-9/11 environment; notes that 85% of U.S. critical infrastructure is owned and controlled by non-governmental organizations

Bovin et al. (2004), “Leading After 9/11”

Review of results of a business continuity oriented survey of 461 managers at U.K. businesses

Veysey (2004), “Insurers called influential in forming continuity plans”

literature review cont
Literature Review (cont)

Empirical analysis of the impact of computer disasters on information management using sample data from 274 executives

Kundu (2004), “Impact of computer disasters on information management: a study”

Outline of the expanding scope of business continuity to include all measures and technologies that an organization implements to combat any significant disruption to its normal operations, competitive advantage, and ability to prove regulatory compliance

Price (2004), “The New Scope of Business Continuity”

Examination of the current and evolving status of business continuity in corporations

Quinn (2004), “Moving Business Continuity Into the Corporate Mainstream”

literature review cont10
Literature Review (cont)

Examination of corporate plans, strategies, and short-term activities potentially needed to incorporate the ramifications of 9/11 events

Kennedy et al. (2003), “Scenario planning after 9/11: Managing the impact of a catastrophic event”

An academic overview of the evolving discipline of business continuity

Elliott, Swartz, and Herbane (2002), “Business Continuity Management: A Crisis Management Approach”

Presentation of a multidisciplinary approach to crisis management research, using psychological, social-political, and technological-structural research perspectives

Pearson and Clair (1998), “Reframing Crisis Management”

literature review cont11
Literature Review (cont)

A detailed business-oriented overview of the business continuity planning process

Strohl Systems (1995), “The Business Continuity Planning Guide”

Leading industry publications:

Disaster Recovery Journal

Continuity Insights

Business Continuity Management

Risk Management

Non-academic proprietary research:

Gartner Group

Meta Group

Major Business Continuity Vendors

why is the research relevant
Why is the research relevant ?

Examples:

  • The U.S. experienced 58 weather-related disasters between 1980 and 2003, with normalized damages that exceeded $1 billion each and totaled $349 billion (NOAA 2004)
  • 43% of firms hit by severe crises never reopen. Another 29% fail within two years. (Datapro Research Company 1990)

e.g. Of all business damaged by Hurricane Andrew in 1992, 80% of those lacking a business continuity plan failed within 2 years of the storm. (FEMA http://www.fema.gov/library/lib01.htm)

why is the research relevant cont
Why is the research relevant ? (cont)

Examples:

  • More than 75% of organizations worldwide experienced unexpected unavailability of critical business systems in 2002. (Ernst & Young Global Information Security 2002 Survey)
  • Downtime costs $1300 per minute on average. (Oracle)

Downtime costs major Internet players an estimated $8000 per hour. (Forrester Research)

Typical medium-sized business downtime costs average $78,000 per hour; these sites typically lose more than $1 million annually due to downtime. (IDC)

slide14

Cost of Downtime

Copyright © 2001

Revenue

Productivity

  • Direct loss
  • Compensatory payments
  • Lost future revenues
  • Billing losses
  • Investment losses
  • Number of employees impacted X hours out X burdened hourly rate

Financial Performance

Damaged Reputation

  • Customers
  • Suppliers
  • Financial markets
  • Banks
  • Business partners
  • Etc.
  • Revenue recognition
  • Cash flow
  • Lost discounts (A/P)
  • Payment guarantees
  • Credit rating
  • Stock price

Other Expenses

Temporary employees, equipment rental, overtime costs, extra

shipping costs, travel expenses, opportunity costs, etc.

why is the research relevant cont15
Why is the research relevant ? (cont)
  • Marketing perspective
    • Business Continuity is a multi-billion-dollar industry.
    • Major Business Continuity vendors are interested in research to identify product and service opportunities, increase sales, and maintain profitable customer relationships. (e.g. IBM, HP, AT&T, Strohl Systems, SunGard)
    • Significant non-academic work is done by research organizations. (e.g. Gartner Group, Meta Group)
    • Academic work, available to both business continuity vendors and customers, has the potential to fill a marketing information void for those who cannot afford research organization prices.
why is the research relevant cont16
Why is the research relevant ? (cont)
  • Managerial perspective
    • In a 24x7 on-line world, managers must approximate 100% uptime and accessibility or customers will go elsewhere.

“The wonder of the Web is that the customer knows about problems at the same time that you do. There’s no camouflage.” - Senior VP of electronic brokerage

    • A business continuity readiness scale can provide an operational tool for managers to measure and assess readiness at both a firm level and, potentially, an industry level.
    • A business continuity readiness scale can provide information for a scorecard useful for updating Boards of Directors, internal and external auditors, industry analysts, investors, and other stakeholders.
why is the research relevant cont17
Why is the research relevant ? (cont)
  • Academic perspective
    • There is very little theoretical and empirical research in the literature.
    • While university classes and academic degrees are beginning to be awarded in the areas of business continuity / disaster recovery / emergency response, the coursework and textbooks are based on non-academic research and case studies.
    • There are no academic constructs / scales for organizational business continuity readiness and its antecedents.
slide18

How This Research Addresses the Gap

Proposed Construct:

Perceived Organizational Business Continuity Readiness

Related Research Questions:

  • How is perceived organizational business continuity readiness measured?
  • What factors (antecedents) contribute to perceived organizational business continuity readiness?
  • What are the consequences of organizational business continuity readiness?
slide20

The Research Process

  • Step 1: Defined the concept of perceived organizational business continuity readiness.
  • Step 2: Generated a broad list of 56 questionnaire items to measure the concept based on review of business / academic literature and qualitative research.
  • Step 3: Collected data – Survey # 1.
  • Step 4: Reduced the number of questionnaire items to 23, based on reliability and factor analysis of data from Survey # 1.
  • Step 5: Collected additional data for the reduced number of questionnaire items – Survey # 2.
  • Step 6: Reduced the number of survey items further, to 11, based on reliability analysis and factor analysis of data from Survey # 2. Identified 4 related categories (factors) into which those questionnaire items fall.
  • Step 7: Confirmed the 11-item, 4-factor structure developed in Step 6 (which used data from Survey # 2) with data from Survey # 1.
  • Step 8: Developed norms (mean average scores) for different demographic groups.
specified the domain of the construct
Specified the Domain of the Construct
  • Conducted a literature search.
  • Developed a delineated definition of the construct:

Perceived organizational business continuity readiness:

Perceived ability of an organization to keep functioning until its normal facilities are restored after a disaster or disruptive event

generated the initial sample of items
Generated the Initial Sample of Items
  • Reviewed prior literature on the topic.
  • Examined business continuity vendor work on business continuity readiness assessment:
      • Gartner Group
      • IBM Global Services
      • Hewlett Packard (HP)
      • Hitachi Data Services
      • Abbott Consulting, Inc.
generated the initial sample of items cont
Generated the Initial Sample of Items (cont.)
  • Reviewed Disaster Recovery Institute International’s “Professional Practices for Business Continuity Planners”.
  • Examined 3 years of weekly survey questions posted by the Disaster Recovery Journal on its website and the related results.
  • Conducted an experience survey using depth interviews with 5 industry experts to develop a draft set of items.
generated the initial sample of items cont24
Generated the Initial Sample of Items (cont.)
  • Conducted an on-online focus group of 57 Master Certified Business Continuity Professionals (including business continuity planners, managers, and vendors) to develop a full range of items.
      • Asked the participants: “How can business continuity readiness be measured?” in terms of dimensions and specific items.
      • 11 participants discussed the topic in depth by proposing lists of potential measurement items. 10 additional participants commented on the appropriateness of those items.
generated the initial sample of items cont25
Generated the Initial Sample of Items (cont.)
  • Developed initial item sample characteristics: (cont.)
      • Structured questionnaire – all respondents replied to the same questions.
      • Undisguised questionnaire – did not attempt to hide the purpose of the study.
      • Method of administration – on-line survey, accessed on a self-selecting basis, either from the Disaster Recovery Journal website or from a DRJ newsletter emailed to the respondent.
generated the initial sample of items cont26
Generated the initial sample of items (cont.)
  • Developed initial item sample characteristics:

56 items proposed to measure the construct

      • 8 items that asked for a direct respondent belief / opinion, using a 7-point scale of agreement / disagreement, on the degree to which his/her organization has achieved business continuity readiness.
      • 48 items that asked the respondent to give his assessment, using a 7-point scale of agreement / disagreement, of the degree to which his/her organization has implemented measures to improve its business continuity readiness.
refined the sample of items
Refined the Sample of Items
  • Developed initial item sample characteristics:

4 additional questions:

        • What is your level of expertise in the area of business continuity planning? (Novice to Advanced / Expert)
        • Have you earned a certification in the area of business continuity planning? (Yes or No)
        • What is the size of your company (approximate number of employees - all locations) (7 ranges, from “Sole” to “10,000+”)
        • What is the primary business of your organization? (18 options, including “Other”)
refined the sample of items cont
Refined the Sample of Items (cont.)
  • Implemented the on-line version of the questionnaire to the ODU Inquisite server using Inquisite (ODU) survey software. (Contact: Dr. Joan Mann, ODU CBPA)
  • Verified that the questionnaire functioned correctly by entering a complete set of survey responses.
  • Asked 3 subjects without business continuity planning knowledge or experience to complete the survey to assess clarity and understandability.
refined the sample of items cont29
Refined the Sample of Items (cont.)
  • Conducted a pre-test using input from 5 experts (practitioner and consultant) to assess content validity in terms of applicability and representation of the perceived organizational business continuity readiness dimension.
  • No duplication or inappropriate items were identified based on the above analysis.
  • Finalized the initial version of the scale.
  • Deleted the responses of the pre-testers.
collected data round 1
Collected Data – Round 1
  • Survey population: Executives, managers, employees, and vendors with a specific interest in business continuity planning
  • Potential sampling units:
      • Disaster Recovery Journal website visitors *
      • Disaster Recovery Journal on-line newsletter recipients *
      • Disaster Recovery Journal conference attendees
      • Disaster Recovery Institute website visitors

* Selected

collected data round 1 cont
Collected Data – Round 1 (cont.)
  • Posted the survey announcement and link on the Disaster Recovery Journal site.
  • Modified and reimplemented the survey after 2 days based on belated input from one of the pre-test participants:
      • Enhanced survey instructions to prepare participants for questions in the form of declarative sentences with an agree / disagree scale.
collected data round 1 cont32
Collected Data – Round 1 (cont.)
  • Monitored the DRJ survey site daily.
  • Received daily status reports from Inquisite coordinator.
  • Monitored the Inquisite survey data results.
  • # of usable surveys completed: 432
lessons learned on line surveys
Lessons Learned – On-line Surveys
  • Build a detailed plan with completion dates; allow enough time for each step of the project.
  • Expert interviewees and pre-testers are likely to respond with second or third responses after their initial input; sometimes their late responses are important.
  • Website – related lessons learned:
    • The host website may change; daily monitoring is important.
    • Other website items and placement on website may impact response.
    • Holiday periods may impact response.
lessons learned on line surveys cont
Lessons Learned – On-Line Surveys(cont.)
  • Inquisite is an excellent survey tool but currently has some drawbacks:
    • The entire survey cannot be printed for review; must print 1 page at a time.
    • It’s often difficult or not possible to create desired customization
    • What you see is not necessarily what you get. It’s important to preview the survey itself as you build it.
  • Offer participants something; in this case, they responded well to the offer of research results.
purified the measure
Purified the Measure
  • Analyzed the results of the initial data, using:

- Reliability analysis (Cronbach’s Alpha)

- Factor analysis

  • Revised the questionnaire by reducing the number of items from 56 to 23.
  • Added 18 items to measure antecedents.
  • Added 10 items to collect demographic information about the respondent and the respondent’s organization.
survey 1 results
Survey 1 Results

Factor Analysis / Reliability Results

collected data round 2
Collected Data – Round 2
  • Used a paper survey distributed in the registration packages of the 03/2005 Disaster Recovery Journal Conference
  • # of surveys distributed: 895
  • # of usable surveys completed: 126
survey 2 results final 11 item scale
Survey 2 Results – Final 11-Item Scale

Factor Analysis / Reliability Results

next steps
Next Steps
  • Multigroup analysis (AMOS), using the 2 groups of data collected from the 2 surveys, to determine whether or not the factor structure and factor loadings are similar between the groups.
  • Additional analysis – Survey 2 antecedent data
  • Enhancement of questionnaire to include additional antecedents and consequences
  • Survey 3 data collection (using international Association of Contingency Planners members) and analysis
managerial research implications
Managerial & Research Implications
  • Caveat: It’s perceived, not actual.
  • First study of its type to develop a measurement scale for perceived organizational business continuity readiness.
  • Useful for both business continuity vendors and practitioners, as a tool for filling a marketing information void for consultants and small vendors.
  • Can provide an evaluation tool for executives and an operational tool for managers, to be used to measure and assess readiness at both a firm level and, potentially, an industry level.
  • Might be used to formulate a scorecard, or balanced scorecard component, useful for updating Boards of Directors, internal and external auditors, industry analysts, investors, and other stakeholders.
opportunities for future research
Opportunities for Future Research
  • Conduct testing within individual organizations
  • Develop antecedents and consequences of perceived organizational business continuity readiness
  • Develop an assessment tool for actual organizational business continuity readiness, which might be compared and contrasted with this perceived organizational business continuity readiness scale.