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Interviewing: Any Questions?. Interviewing as a Communication Interaction October 26. Interviewing Defined. Planned, face to face encounters in which at least one of the participants has a specific objective in mind

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interviewing any questions

Interviewing: Any Questions?

Interviewing as a Communication Interaction

October 26

interviewing defined
Interviewing Defined
  • Planned, face to face encounters in which at least one of the participants has a specific objective in mind
  • Specialized, purposive, dyadic interaction that consists primarily of questions and answers
  • Conversation with a purpose
  • Formality, strategy, Q and A
types of interviews
Types of Interviews
  • Counseling interviews
  • Employment interviews
  • Exit interviews
  • Grievance interviews
  • Performance appraisal interviews
  • Persuasive interviews
  • Group/panel interviews
  • Information gathering interviews
interview phases
Interview Phases
  • Opening Phase

--Establishing rapport

--Determining orientation

--Understanding motivation

  • Question-Response Phase
  • Closing Phase

--Post-interview followup

types of interview questions
Types of Interview Questions
  • Open/Hypothetical Open questions
  • Closed questions
  • Probing questions
  • Loaded questions
  • Leading questions
legal issues and interviews
Legal Issues and Interviews
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Laws

--more than 15 employees

--more than $50,000 in federal contracts

--engage in interstate commerce

  • BFOQ--Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications
dealing with illegal questions
Dealing With Illegal Questions
  • How badly do you want the job?
  • Ask for clarification/connection to job
  • Side step and neutralize
  • Listen for the fear behind the question
  • Is this a gross violation?---contact the company
preparing for selection interviews
Preparing for Selection Interviews
  • Review your own strengths and weaknesses
  • Practice potentially difficult questions
  • Research the company
  • Research the interviewer if possible
  • Anticipate requests


--drug tests

why interviews fail
Why Interviews Fail??
  • Style Problems--personal appearance, limp handshake, lack of eye contact
  • Attitude Problems--superiority complex, not willing to start at the bottom, no sense of humor
  • Communication Problems--inability to express oneself, nervousness, condemned past employers, couldn’t explain problems on resume
interviews as rhetorical situations
Interviews as Rhetorical Situations
  • Interviews proceed from an exigence
  • Interviews occur within some system of constraints (the setting--legal, social, time dimensions, psychological climate, legal and ethical constraints
  • Interviews are geared toward a particular audience
interview structures
Interview Structures
  • The Funnel Sequence--broad, open-ended questions narrowing to more specific
  • The Inverted Funnel Sequence--more inductive, specific to general
  • The Tunnel Sequence--similarly structured questions suggesting that the candidate follow with responses at the same level of specificity
political communication as a subset of communication
Political communication as a subset of communication
  • It’s all about process
  • Three main actors—leaders, media, and the public
  • Involves the exchange and interpretation of messages
  • Broadly concerned with governance or public policy
the academic study of political communication
The Academic Study of Political Communication
  • Can use quantitative methods (measuring effects and attitudes, attempts to predict outcomes)
  • Can use qualitative (studies of presidential rhetoric, attempts to reach understanding of individual cases)
  • Underlying thesis—can’t understand politics without studying communication systems and messages
what do policomm folks study
What do PoliComm folks study?
  • The “Rhetorical Presidency”
  • Role of the media in the political process
  • Genres of presidential rhetoric
  • Campaigns and advertising
  • Debates
  • New media and its impact on the political process
  • Agenda setting—we don’t tell people what to think, we tell them what to think about!
classics of policomm paul lazarsfeld
Classics of PoliComm: Paul Lazarsfeld
  • First comprehensive study of politics and media use, Erie NY, 1940
  • Spent six months conducting interviews and tracking individuals and their attitudes
  • Findings
    • Social factors are the best predictors of voting
    • The two-step flow theory (Interpersonal trumps mass media)
    • Opinion leaders and their influence
    • Overall, media effects are limited and constrained
classics of policomm joseph klapper
Classics of PoliComm: Joseph Klapper
  • 1960 book, The Effects of Mass Communication, student of Lazarsfeld
  • Research to this point did not support any significant, independent effects of media
  • The hypodermic needle theory is wrong, media may reinforce but not control
  • People use mechanisms to blunt media influence: selective exposure, selective attention, selective retention
a political communication quiz
A Political Communication Quiz

Answer true or false to the following


  • Most presidents make a strong effort to keep most of their campaign promises.
  • General election presidential political ads spend more than half of their air time attacking
political communication quiz
Political Communication Quiz
  • When candidates make statements in speeches, they usually expect us to take them at their word and so provide little supporting evidence.
  • Most candidates ads lie most of the time.
  • The quality of presidential general election campaigns has steadily worsened over the year
political communication quiz20
Political Communication Quiz
  • Campaign discourse in speeches and debates has become steadily more negative over the years.
  • Reporters pretty accurately represent the content and level of attack in their stories about candidate speeches.
  • Voters prefer ads that contrast the records of the candidates to ads that simply attack.
political communication quiz21
Political Communication Quiz
  • There isn’t much useful information in campaigns; it’s all mostly hype.
  • Political advertising truns off voters and makes them stay away from the polls as a result.
  • Women know less than men about politics.