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Welcome Introduce Zoology Syllabus Lecture Evolution, and Zoology Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection Origin of Species Properties of Life Origins of Life Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Levels of organization Cell division and inheritance. Biology is the study of Life

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slide1
Welcome
  • Introduce Zoology
  • Syllabus
  • Lecture
    • Evolution, and Zoology
    • Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
    • Origin of Species
    • Properties of Life Origins of Life
    • Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
    • Levels of organization
    • Cell division and inheritance
slide2
Biology is the study of Life
  • Single cell to multicellular organisms
slide3
Cell is the basic unit of life
  • Unique plant cell and animal cell
slide4
Zoology- zoon, animal + logos, to study
    • is the study of Animals
  • Is one of the broadest fields in all of science
    • Variety of animals
    • Complexity of and the processes
slide5
Specializations in Zoology
  • Anatomy
  • Ecology
  • Genetics
  • Parasitology
  • Physiology
  • Entomology-
  • Ichthyology-
slide6
Ichthyologist-

work to understand structure, function, ecology and evolution of fishes

Studies have uncovered an amazing diversity of fishes

Cichlid (‘sick-lid’)- freshwater perch-like fishes

  • 1000 species in Africa
  • 300 in South America
  • 3 in India
  • 1 in North America
slide7
Members of this group
  • Variety of color patterns
  • Habitats
  • Body forms
  • Feeding habits
slide8
Eretmodus

Nip algae with chisel-like teeth

slide9
Tanganicodus

Insect pickers

slide10
Perissodus

Scale eaters

slide11
Brood their young
  • Dogtooth cichlid
slide12

The Fontosa

Body form

an evolutionary perspective
An Evolutionary Perspective
  • Share a common evolutionary past and evolutionary forces that influence their history
    • Resulted in 4 to 100 million species of animals
  • Understand evolutionary process to understand
    • What it is
    • How it originated
lamarck s theory of evolution
Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution

Figure 22.4

  • Lamarck hypothesized that species evolve
    • Through use and disuse and the inheritance of acquired traits
    • But the mechanisms he proposed are unsupported by evidence
fossils cuvier and catastrophism
Fossils, Cuvier, and Catastrophism

Figure 22.3

  • The study of fossils
    • Helped to lay the groundwork for Darwin’s ideas
  • Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past
    • Usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata
slide16

England

EUROPE

NORTH

AMERICA

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

PACIFIC

OCEAN

Galápagos

Islands

HMS Beagle in port

AFRICA

SOUTH

AMERICA

Darwin in 1840,

after his return

AUSTRALIA

Cape of

Good Hope

Andes

Tasmania

Cape Horn

New

Zealand

Tierra del Fuego

Figure 22.5

  • Darwin’s interest in the geographic distribution of species
    • Was kindled by the Beagle’s stop at the Galápagos Islands near the equator west of South America
darwin s focus on adaptation
Darwin’s Focus on Adaptation
  • As Darwin reassessed all that he had observed during the voyage of the Beagle
    • He began to perceive adaptation to the environment and the origin of new species as closely related processes
slide18

(a) Cactus eater. The long,sharp beak of the cactusground finch (Geospizascandens) helps it tearand eat cactus flowersand pulp.

(c) Seed eater. The large groundfinch (Geospiza magnirostris)has a large beak adapted forcracking seeds that fall fromplants to the ground.

Figure 22.6a–c

(b) Insect eater. The green warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) uses itsnarrow, pointed beak to grasp insects.

  • From studies made years after Darwin’s voyage
    • Biologists have concluded that this is indeed what happened to the Galápagos finches
slide19
In 1844, Darwin wrote a long essay on the origin of species and natural selection
    • But he was reluctant to introduce his theory publicly, anticipating the uproar it would cause
  • In June 1858 Darwin received a manuscript from Alfred Russell Wallace
    • Who had developed a theory of natural selection similar to Darwin’s
  • Darwin quickly finished The Origin of Species
    • And published it the next year
resistance to the idea of evolution
Resistance to the Idea of Evolution
  • The Origin of Species
    • Shook the deepest roots of Western culture
    • Challenged a worldview that had been prevalent for centuries
descent with modification
Descent with Modification
  • The phrase descent with modification
    • Summarized Darwin’s perception of the unity of life
    • States that all organisms are related through descent from an ancestor that lived in the remote past
slide22

Sirenia

(Manatees

and relatives)

Loxodonta

africana

(Africa)

Elephas

maximus

(Asia)

Loxodonta

cyclotis

(Africa)

Hyracoidea

(Hyraxes)

Years ago

Stegodon

Mammut

Mammuthus

Deinotherium

Platybelodon

Millions of years ago

Barytherium

Moeritherium

Figure 22.7

  • In the Darwinian view, the history of life is like a tree
    • With multiple branchings from a common trunk to the tips of the youngest twigs that represent the diversity of living organisms
natural selection and adaptation
Natural Selection and Adaptation
  • Evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr
    • Has dissected the logic of Darwin’s theory into three inferences based on five observations
slide24

Figure 22.8

  • Observation #1: For any species, population sizes would increase exponentially
    • If all individuals that are born reproduced successfully
slide25
Observation #2: Nonetheless, populations tend to be stable in size
    • Except for seasonal fluctuations
  • Observation #3: Resources are limited
  • Inference #1: Production of more individuals than the environment can support
    • Leads to a struggle for existence among individuals of a population, with only a fraction of their offspring surviving
slide26

Figure 22.9

  • Observation #4: Members of a population vary extensively in their characteristics
    • No two individuals are exactly alike
slide27
Observation #5: Much of this variation is heritable
  • Inference #2: Survival depends in part on inherited traits
    • Individuals whose inherited traits give them a high probability of surviving and reproducing are likely to leave more offspring than other individuals
slide28
Inference #3: This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce
    • Will lead to a gradual change in a population, with favorable characteristics accumulating over generations
artificial selection
Artificial Selection

Lateral

buds

Terminal

bud

Brussels sprouts

Cabbage

Flower

cluster

Leaves

Cauliflower

Kale

Flower

and

stems

Stem

Broccoli

Kohlrabi

Wild mustard

Figure 22.10

  • In the process of artificial selection
    • Humans have modified other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits
summary of natural selection
Summary of Natural Selection
  • Natural selection is differential success in reproduction
    • That results from the interaction between individuals that vary in heritable traits and their environment
slide31

(a) A flower mantidin Malaysia

(b) A stick mantidin Africa

Figure 22.11

  • Natural selection can produce an increase over time
    • In the adaptation of organisms to their environment
slide32
If an environment changes over time
    • Natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions
slide33
Darwin’s theory explains a wide range of observations
  • Darwin’s theory of evolution
    • Continues to be tested by how effectively it can account for additional observations and experimental outcomes
evolutionary processes
Evolutionary Processes
  • Organic evolution- change in the genetic makeup of populations over time.
    • Source of animal diversity
    • Explains family relationships within animal groups
  • Charles Darwin
  • Published evidence of evolution 1859
  • Proposed a mechanism
  • Understanding diversity of animal structure and function arose is one of the many challenges
  • i.e cichlid scale eaters of Africa
animal classification and evolutionary relationship
Animal classification and Evolutionary Relationship
  • Evolution not only explanation why animals appear and function as they do
  • It explains family relationships
  • i.e cichlid species
    • Groups share more of their DNA
    • Thus resemble each other
    • Genetic studies suggest
      • Oldest African cichlid found in Lakes Tanganyika and Kivu
      • These fish invades rivers, lakes Malawi, Victoria and others
      • Most rapid known origin of species of any animal groups
slide37

Figure 22.1

  • The Origin of Species
    • Focused biologists’ attention on the great diversity of organisms
slide38
Darwin made two major points in his book
    • He presented evidence that the many species of organisms presently inhabiting the Earth are descendants of ancestral species
    • He proposed a mechanism for the evolutionary process, natural selection
slide39
The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species
  • In order to understand why Darwin’s ideas were revolutionary
    • We need to examine his views in the context of other Western ideas about Earth and its life
slide40

Linnaeus (classification)

Hutton (gradual geologic change)

Lamarck (species can change)

Malthus (population limits)

Cuvier (fossils, extinction)

Lyell (modern geology)

Darwin (evolution, nutural selection)

Mendel (inheritance)

Wallace (evolution, natural selection)

American Revolution

French Revolution

U.S. Civil War

1800

1850

1900

1750

1795

Hutton proposes his theory of gradualism.

1798

Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.”

1809

Lamarck publishes his theory of evolution.

Lyell publishes Principles of Geology.

1830

Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle.

1831–1836

1837

Darwin begins his notebooks on the origin of species.

1844

Darwin writes his essay on the origin of species.

1858

Wallace sends his theory to Darwin.

TheOrigin of Species is published.

1859

1865

Mendel publishes inheritance papers.

Figure 22.2

  • The historical context of Darwin’s life and ideas
homology biogeography and the fossil record
Homology, Biogeography, and the Fossil Record
  • Evolutionary theory
    • Provides a cohesive explanation for many kinds of observations
homology
Homology
  • Homology
    • Is similarity resulting from common ancestry
anatomical homologies
Anatomical Homologies

Human

Cat

Bat

Whale

Figure 22.14

  • Homologous structures between organisms
    • Are anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme that was present in a common ancestor
slide44

Pharyngeal

pouches

Post-anal

tail

Chick embryo

Human embryo

Figure 22.15

  • Comparative embryology
    • Reveals additional anatomical homologies not visible in adult organisms
slide45
Vestigial organs
    • Are some of the most intriguing homologous structures
    • Are remnants of structures that served important functions in the organism’s ancestors
molecular homologies
Molecular Homologies
  • Biologists also observe homologies among organisms at the molecular level
    • Such as genes that are shared among organisms inherited from a common ancestor
homologies and the tree of life
Homologies and the Tree of Life
  • The Darwinian concept of an evolutionary tree of life
    • Can explain the homologies that researchers have observed
slide48

Percent of Amino Acids That Are

Identical to the Amino Acids in a

Human Hemoglobin Polypeptide

Species

100%

Human

Rhesus monkey

95%

Mouse

87%

Chicken

69%

Frog

54%

14%

Figure 22.16

Lamprey

  • Anatomical resemblances among species
    • Are generally reflected in their molecules, their genes, and their gene products
biogeography
Biogeography
  • Darwin’s observations of the geographic distribution of species, biogeography
    • Formed an important part of his theory of evolution
slide50

NORTH

AMERICA

Sugar

glider

AUSTRALIA

Flying

squirrel

Figure 22.17

  • Some similar mammals that have adapted to similar environments
    • Have evolved independently from different ancestors
the fossil record
The Fossil Record
  • The succession of forms observed in the fossil record
    • Is consistent with other inferences about the major branches of descent in the tree of life
binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
  • Karl von Linne (1707-1778)
  • Named and classified plants into hierarchy of relatedness
  • Binomial Nomenclature- systematic way of naming organisms-
    • Two part name describes each kind of organism
    • First part- indicates the genus
    • Second part indicates the species to which the organism belongs.
    • i.e. Perissodus microlepis
slide53

Figure 22.18

  • The Darwinian view of life
    • Predicts that evolutionary transitions should leave signs in the fossil record
  • Paleontologists
    • Have discovered fossils of many such transitional forms
what is theoretical about the darwinian view of life
What Is Theoretical about the Darwinian View of Life?
  • In science, a theory
    • Accounts for many observations and data and attempts to explain and integrate a great variety of phenomena
figure 1 4
Figure 1.4

Hierarchy of Relatedness

slide56
Evolutionary concepts hold the key to understanding
    • why animals look and act
    • Habitat
    • Characteristics
ecological perspective
Ecological Perspective
  • Ecology- (Gr. okois, house + logos, to study)
  • Study of the relationships between organisms and their environment
  • Human dependence on animals (food, medicine, clothing)
  • Humans upset the delicate ecological balances that has evolved
in the 1950 s in an attempt to increase the lake s fishery
In the 1950’s in an attempt to increase the lake’s fishery
  • Nile perch introduced into Lake Victoria
  • Reduced cichlid population from 99% to <1%
  • Most cichlid feed on algae, the algae grew
  • Algae died and decayed
  • Lake depleted of oxygen
  • Introduced nonnative plant (water hyacinth)
  • Water hyacinth has overgrown and resulted in further habitat loss
ec figure
EC Figure
  • Chapter 1
    • Evolution, Ecology and Zoology
  • Chapter 4
    • Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
    • Microevolution and Macroevolution
  • Chapter 2
    • Properties of Life Origins of Life
    • Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
    • Levels of organization
    • Cell division and inheritance
  • Chapter 3
    • Mitotic
    • Meiosis