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Form versus Function in Fishes. Megan Ennes In conjunction with the North Carolina Aquarium at Fort Fisher. Form versus Function. Body shape fits the needs of the animal Outside (environmental) factors can influence the development of an animal. Anatomical Directions. Dorsal Ventral

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form versus function in fishes

Form versus Function in Fishes

Megan Ennes

In conjunction with the North Carolina Aquarium at Fort Fisher

form versus function
Form versus Function
  • Body shape fits the needs of the animal
  • Outside (environmental) factors can influence the development of an animal
anatomical directions
Anatomical Directions
  • Dorsal
  • Ventral
  • Cranial
  • Caudal
  • Anterior
  • Posterior
superior mouth
Superior Mouth
  • Points up
  • Feeds at the surface
  • Often paired with a flat back
terminal mouth
Terminal Mouth
  • Located at the end of the body
  • Usually feeds midwater
  • “Normal” mouth
  • Eat things in front of them
inferior mouth
Inferior Mouth
  • Located ventrally
  • Usually bottom feeders
  • Often accompanied by barbels
  • Used for locating food
elongated
Elongated
  • Greater surface area to catch food with
long nose gar lepisosteus osseus
Long Nose GarLepisosteus osseus

http://rol.freenet.columbus.oh.us/aquatic_long.gif

tubular mouth
Tubular Mouth
  • Terminal mouth
  • Often fused
  • Suction feeding
  • Straw
body shape
By looking at the overall shape of a fish, you can get an idea of where they live within the aquatic environment. Body Shape
body shapes
Body Shapes
  • Fish that live at the surface usually have a flattened back and an upturned mouth.
  • Fish that live in slow-moving waters usually have tall bodies and are laterally compressed.
  • Bottom-dwelling fish have flattened bellies and inferior or down turned mouths
surface swimmers
Surface swimmers
  • Fish that live at the surface usually have a flattened back and an upturned mouth.
  • Flat Needlefish
slow moving waters
Slow Moving Waters
  • Fish that live in slow-moving waters usually have tall bodies and are laterally compressed.
  • Lookdowns
  • Selenevomer
bottom feeders
Bottom Feeders
  • Bottom-dwelling fish often have flattened bellies and inferior or down turned mouths

Southern Stingray Dasyatisamericana

fast moving water
Fast Moving Water
  • In fast moving waters a slender, torpedo shape is better
  • This body shape is also good for fish who live far from the reef: speed
fat and wide bodies
Fat and Wide Bodies
  • Good maneuverability
  • Better for close to the reef
  • Easier to move around corals
eel like body
Eel-like body
  • This long body shape is perfect for moving through small spaces: especially holes and caves
  • The trunk is undulated to provide the propulsive force
caudal fin tail
Caudal Fin: Tail
  • The caudal fin, or tail, is used for propulsion, or movement, in most fish species.
lunate tails
Lunate Tails
  • Fishes with lunate are strong, fast swimmers.
  • They are capable of swimming for long periods of time
forked tails
Forked Tails
  • Fish that spend a lot of time swimming often have forked tails
truncate and rounded tails
Truncate and Rounded Tails

Truncate

  • Fishes with truncate or rounded caudal fins are usually strong, slow swimmers.
  • Fishes that live near the reef often have this type of tail because it aids in maneuverability.

Rounded

heterocercal tail
Heterocercal Tail
  • A tail with a long upper lobe and a shorter lower lobe
  • Common in Sharks
juvenile tiger shark galeocerdo cuvier
Juvenile Tiger Shark Galeocerdo cuvier

http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/TigerShark/juvenile.JPG

eel like tail
Eel-like Tail
  • The propulsive force for a fish with this type of tail begins in the trunk of the body and moves as a wave down through the tail.
  • This shape is great for fitting into holes and tunnels.
create your own fish
Create your own fish
  • Use the second worksheet we gave you
  • Cut out the different fish shapes
  • Choose one of each and glue them to a sheet of paper
  • Color your fish and give it a design
  • Name your fish
  • Write a paragraph telling the function of each part, where it lives, ect.
what s next
What’s next?
  • Choose a tank
  • Choose 3 fishes to sketch in your notebook
  • Find the name of your fishes
  • Label that parts of your fish using the worksheet we just made
for each fish answer the following questions
For each fish answer the following questions:

1. Where do you think this fish lives on the reef? What about this fish leads you to that decision?

2. Where do you think the fish eats? What mouth shape does it have?

3. Is it a schooling fish or does it appear to be solitary?

4. Is your fish territorial? How can you tell?

5. How does your fish swim? Is it built for speed? Maneuverability? How can you tell?

6. Does your fish live close to the reef or far away? What body shape does it have?

7. Is your fish well adapted to its environment? Why or why not?

after your observations
After your observations:
  • We’ll come back to the room and talk about what fish we chose.
  • We’ll discuss as a group what we decided for each fish.
  • We do not expect you to be right, just be able to explain why you made the decision you did.