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ET PS Briefing. ETOPS HIST RY. Delhi - February 1999. Definitions. What is the meaning of ETOPS?  E xtended range with T win engine aircraft OP eration S What is the scope of ETOPS?

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slide1

ET PS Briefing

ETOPS HIST RY

Delhi - February 1999

definitions
Definitions
  • What is the meaning of ETOPS?

Extended range with Twin engine aircraft OPerationS

  • What is the scope of ETOPS?

Operation of twin engine aircraft on routes that go further than 1 hour from a diversion airfield

definitions3
Definitions

60’ circles

KHI

BOM

SLL

JIB

CMB

NBO

Non ETOPS flight

definitions4
Definitions

60’ circles

KHI

BOM

SLL

JIB

CMB

NBO

ETOPS flight

definitions5
Definitions
  • ETOPS regulations are applicable to:

Overwater operations

Overland operations (desert areas...)

  • What is the meaning of EROPS?

Extended Range OPerationS

EROPS describes the applicability of ETOPS requirements to any aircraft, regardless the number of engines

history
History
  • Extended range “operations“ started very early:
  • 1909: first English Channel crossing (L. Bleriot)
  • 1919: first North Atlantic Ocean crossing (J. Alcock & A. Brown)
history7
History
  • 1927: first non-stop New York - Paris (C. Lindbergh)

first US Cost-Hawaï crossing (A.Hegenberger & L.Maitland)

first South Atlantic crossing (D. Costes & J. Le Brix)

  • Extended range “operations“ started very early:
history8
History
  • 1928: first Pacific Ocean crossing (C.K. Smith & C.T. Ulm)
  • 1930: first non-stop Paris - NewYork (D. Costes & M. Bellonte)
  • Extended range “operations“ started very early:
history9
History
  • “Extended range” commercial operations started in the late 1930s:
  • 1936: first trans-Pacific commercial flights
  • 1939: first trans-Atlantic commercial flights
history10
History
  • These types of flights required large multi-engined flying-boats:
  • poor engine reliability and performance could not allow design of equally efficient twin engine aircraft
slide11

History

  • Piston engine reliability
  • The following chart (1953 ICAO report) gives the probability of failure for piston engines vs power at 1000 constant rpm:
  • the probability of failure increases as power is increased
slide12

History

  • Piston engine reliability (cont’d)
  • The 1953 ICAO report shows that for the same amount of installed horsepower, the risk of an engine failure is greater on a 2 engine design than on a 4 engine design:design required hp
slide13

History

  • As reliable and reasonably light engines had limited power:
  • design of long range aircraft (high weight) implied installation of several engines (more than two)
  • twin engine aircraft had limited payload/range performance and were only operated on short flights
history14
History
  • In 1953, further to a review of the piston engine reliability, the FAA published the initial “60 minutes” rule:
  • applicable to three (until 1964) and two engine aircraft
  • special approval for operations beyond 60 minutes
  • At the same time, ICAO issued its “90 minutes” recommendations:
  • no airplane shall be operated beyond 90 min (all engines operative) from a diversion airfield, except if the route can be flown with two engines inoperative
  • common interpretation was that twin engine aircraft could be operated on 90 minutes routes
history15
History
  • Until 1952, all commercial flights were operated with piston engine powered airplanes:
  • 1952: first commercial operation with jet airplane (DH Comet 1)
  • 1958: first transatlantic commercial jet operation (DH Comet 4)
  • Since 1960, jet engine powered aircraft progressively replaced piston engine powered aircraft:
  • on all long range routes
  • on most of regional routes
history16
History
  • Higher performance of jet engines allowed operations of twins on 90 min routes (Caribbeans, Africa, Bay of Bengal, North Atlantic, South China Sea, ...)
slide17

History

  • Jet engine reliability
  • More than 40 years of jet operations have shown that unlike piston engines, jet engine failure probability is not affected by the thrust or the size of the engine:
  • Therefore, the probability of an engine failure is now higher on a quad-jet than on a twin-jet

(for 1000 FH)

slide18

History

  • The introduction in the 1980s of twin aircraft (A310, B767) powered with modern (fuel efficient) turbofan engines made the old 60/90 minute rules inadequate:
  • 1984: ICAO ETOPS study group amend Annex 6
  • 1985: FAA publishes first ETOPS regulation to address 120 min operations
  • 1985: first ETOPS operation (SIA/A310 - TWA/B767)
slide19

History

  • In 1988, the Authorities published rules for 180 minutes ETOPS based on the very good experience with 120 minutes operations:
    • today, ETOPS operation is representing over 60% of North Atlantic operations
  • Regulatory discussions are on-going to assess:
    • extension of the ETOPS limit beyond 180 minutes
    • increase of the non-ETOPS threshold above 60 minutes